1. What variable is presented in Table 2? What is the level of measurement of this variable? Provide a rationale for your answer.

In Table 2, the presented variable is depression; the level of measurement is ordinal. There are four categories ( severe depression, moderate depression, mild depression, and not depressed).

These categories can be ranked from least to most severe.

2. How many subjects and what percentage of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher.

The total number of subjects with a score of 16 or higher is 44 or 37%.

(15+15=14=44 subjects and 12.5%+12.5%+12%=37%)

8. In the Employment Status categories in Table 1, are the categories exhaustive for the sample?

Provide a rationale for your answer.

Yes, the sample is exhaustive. The sample of 120 subjects are categorized into three groups: retired, employed or unemployed. That is considered exhaustive.

9. The article states that 1 out of 10 people in the United States suffer from depression. How do the results of this study compare to this figure? How might you explain any differences?

One out of 10 people would be considered a 10% depression rate. The study results indicate that 37% of the subjects were depressed. The individuals in this study apparently had an above average amount of stress possibility related their diagnosis and illness. One could assume that individuals with medical conditions and their care givers seem to have a higher incidence of depression. Exercise 2: Identifying Level of Measurement: Ordinal

4. Were the categories for the demographic variable Education (higher level) mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and rank ordered? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Yes, the Education categories were mutually exclusive, exhaustive and ranked. When a subject fits into one category only, that is considered exclusive. The categories are exhaustive because all years of education are covered; lowest category ( <7 years), highest category (4 years of college or higher) etc. Additionally, the educational categories are rank ordered from largest number of years to least amount of years.

7. Should the demographic variable Educational level be analyzed with parametric or nonparametric statistical analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A nonparametric statistical analysis technique is usually used when the study involves ordinal levels of measurement. A study that uses the demographic variable “Educational level” (rank order) should thus use a nonparametric analysis.

9. Are the intervals between the Estimated Yearly Family Income categories equal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

No the Estimated Yearly Family Income categories are not equal; however, they can be rank ordered. The first category ( < $ 5,000) compared to the next category ( 10,000-19,000) is not equal in the amount but less. That is valid with the next three categories as well. So, there is a definite rank order but the intervals are not equal. If the intervals were equal it would be considered an interval or ratio level of measurement.

1

Exercise 3: Identifying Level of Measurement: Interval/Ratio

3. Which variables in Table II are measured at the interval/ratio level? Provide a rationale for your answer. All three variables are at the interval/ratio level because the measurements have an infinite value with equal intervals. The degrees Centigrade variable does not have an absolute zero, so it would be an interval level measurement.

4. Which level of measurement, interval or ratio, has an absolute zero point? What does an absolute zero point mean?

The level of measurement with an absolute zero point is the ratio level. An absolute zero point means that the variable measured has no value and is not present. For example, a breathing rate of zero means that respirations are absent.

5. What is the level of measurement of the three variables in Table II? Do these variables have an absolute zero point? Provide a rationale