Essay about Weird: Vertebrate and Amphibians Reptiles Birds

Submitted By genAweed
Words: 1052
Pages: 5

Integrated Science 4 Name Per. TOC#
Comparative Zoology Portfolio Project
Using your knowledge from the in class activities, your notes, you Integrated Science text, or the internet, you will look at the major trends in the evolution of six body systems: skeletal, nervous, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, and digestive. In order understand the evolution of these systems you will compare 5 major vertebrate classes: Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia (amphibians), Reptilia (reptiles), Aves (birds), and Mammalia (mammals).

For each system you will be asked to complete the following:
1. A description of the structures and functions of the system
2. A chart that illustrates similarities and differences among important parts of the systems for different species
3. A drawing of a cladogram to illustrate the shared derived characters that define the system
4. A written phylogeny in which you will discuss the selective pressure(s) that caused the evolutionary trends we see.
After completing all the systems, you will be asked to answer a series of comparative analysis questions which will draw from your knowledge of the systems, as well as the different vertebrate groups and apply the knowledge to create a hypothesis of vertebrates’ evolutionary history.
You will have almost no class time to work on this project. However, you will be deciphering most of the needed knowledge during in class activities. Additionally, many nights, your homework will be to work on this project. Throughout the project, there will be check in dates for each system. It is imperative that you do not procrastinate. This project needs to be typed and follow the formatting below. For any diagrams required, they may be hand drawn or computer generated, but either way, all structures must be labeled. The project with be due on April 18. The total project is worth 60 pts.
System Requirements
A. Skeletal System: Check in date: March 26

1. Structures and Functions:
Identify the functions of the system
Identify similar and unique structures for each group: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

2. Comparison Chart

Function of forearm
Diagram of forearm bones
Fish: Bony fish

Amphibians: Frogs

Reptiles: lizards

Birds: red tail hawk

Mammals: bat cat

3. Cladogram
Using the function as your character, fill in the shared derived characters that separate each vertebrate group

4. Phylogeny
Explain why each class has similar or different bone structures. Give examples of homologous and analogous structures within the groups above and the related evolutionary trend (divergent/convergent evolution).
________/ 10 pts
B. Nervous System Check in date: March 28

1. Structures and Functions:
Explain the functions of the nervous system.
Explain unique/interesting abilities of each group’s nervous system: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

2. Comparison Chart

Identify similar structures
Identify unique characteristics to the nervous system
Diagram of the Brain






3. Cladogram

4. Phylogeny

How do cephalization and the presence of a central nervous system help vertebrate organisms survive?
Describe the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of the human brain.

________/ 10 pts
5. Respiratory System Check in date: April 1

1. Structures and Functions
Explain the function of the respiratory system.
What structures are unique to each of the following groups: fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals? 2. Comparison Chart

Major respiratory organ(s)
Diagram of Unique structures





3. Cladogram: using the “major respiratory organ” as the character, complete the following