Essay on Wesley Rupe Group Course Project Draft Genetic Engineering Wk 6 Layli Final Edits 4 15 15

Submitted By LayliStroia1
Words: 8837
Pages: 36

Genetic Engineering
Wesley Rupe, Jawad Rana, Layli Stroia,
Charles Taiwo, Mariella Velasquez, Mark Young
DeVry University

Genetic Engineering
Table of contents
Title page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1. A brief description of the technology and an explanation of the associated science (Mariella Velasquez) ………………………………………………..……………. 3
2. Psychological considerations and sociological effects (Mariella Velasquez) …………. 3
3. The historical development and context of the technology (Wesley Rupe) …………. 13
4. Political and legal influences (Mark Young) (Not Complete)
5. Economic questions and considerations (Jawad Rana)………………………………….…… 21
6. The technology in its cultural context, media influence (Charles Taiwo) (Not Complete)
7. Implications for the environment (Charles Taiwo) (Not Complete)
8. Moral and ethical implications (Layli Stroia) ……………………………………………………..… 30

Outline
I. A brief description of the technology and an explanation of the associated science

A. Definition: What is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic engineering (GE) is the process of manipulation of an organism genome to create a new DNA. The new DNA might be implanted in a totally different DNA species. It is widely used to create hybrids (some species are not able to naturally breed), correct genetic flows in any type of being. It is applied in fields such as agriculture, industrial, medicine and pharmaceutical (Aldridge, 1996).
As Primrose explained, gene manipulation involves the creation and cloning of artificially created DNA (recombinant DNA) that provides with DNA sequences not found in nature. This created DNA is introduced in a host living cell. “…genetic engineering is a 'cut, paste, and copy' operation. The gene transferred is first cut out of the DNA of the organism it comes from. It is then 'pasted' into an intermediary DNA molecule called a vector, which carries it into the host organism. Here it is copied many times — or cloned — as the host organism replicates. Ideally each cell of the host adopts the new gene and expresses it as the required protein product.” (Aldridge, 1996)

B. Types of Genetic Engineering
1. Somatic cells GE
Somatic cells are found in our bodies except for the sperm and egg cells (reproductive cells). GE procedures do not affect the offspring genetic makeup. Somatic cell therapy is target to the patient receiving the treatment.
2. Germline or Germ cells GE
Germline involves changing the genetic material of reproductive cells: egg, sperm, and even cells from very early embryos. These genetic alterations would be transmitted to the offspring. (Moss, 2015)
C. Associated Science:
1. Cloning
Cloning is the procedure used to produce a genetic copy of another already existing being. It is mainly performed with somatic cells nuclear transfer techniques: the nucleus of a body cell is inserted into an egg cell which nucleus was removed. The resulted clone would share the same genes as the donor of the body cell.
D. Gene therapy: to treat diseases
It is used as medical treatment when diseases have not known cure or when the patient does not respond to conventional medical therapies. It is expected to cure heart diseases, AIDs and cancer.
E. Vegetative production
F. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis
Include procedures that are done before the embryo implantation into the mother’s womb. The collected embryos are tested to find genetic traits link to health conditions and even appearance characteristics. Once the embryo is selected it can be implanted in uterus. This procedure is used to avoid parents to pass genetic conditions to their offspring or even prevent birth of children with certain conditions: Down’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell.
G. Sex selection
Procedures that allows parents to choose the sex of their children. It can be performed before or after conception.…