I'm going to repeat myself here! With his conquests, William of Normandy had created a strong, centralized government. Hierarchy of nobles would hold land as fiefs for the king. William also was influenced by the Anglo-Saxon administrative system in which countries were divided into hundreds. With each shire, the sheriff was the chief royal officer responsible for the district in military, court, and royal tol affairs. The system of taxation and courts also strengthened. Due to being a king in England, he heavily influenced the aea and gave it somewhat the head start that it needed, with France well on its heels.
The Investiture Controversy occurred during the 11th ventury, and developed when the papacy became involved in reforming the church. Pope Alexander VII outlawed the right of the king or other rulers to invest people into high positions. Henry IV didnot abide by this, electing two bishops, only to have the pope renounce them! After being excommunicated, Henry seeks conversation with the pope and is back to normal. This issue wa widespread, placing a struggle between the Pope and the kings/ emperors at hand in who had the true power.For the German lands this created a separation of powers, even when both church and state had some power of the same individuals.
The Papal Monarchy sonsists of this breakdown via book: The Catholic Church consisted of the pope and papa curia, who were at the apex of the structure. The curia was staffed by high church officials known as cardinals, who served as major advisors and admins to the popes. At the popes death, the college of cardinals would elect a new pope. Below them were the archbishops, each of whom controlled a region of archdiocese. Each region was divided into a diocese that was headed by a bishop. Each diocese was divded into a parish, headed by the priest. The Cistercian was another religious group. Cistercians espoused unbending simplicity, and their churches were quite unadorned. Not convinced that scholarship was a proper means of work and spiritual uplift, they took on heavy manual labor in the fields, and were keen to reclaim new lands for agriculture. Carthusian order at the Granna Chartreuse monastery. Their rule was rather spartan.
The church, during the High Middle Ages, persecuted against heretic and Judiasm. This is