How did the revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries help to spread Enlightenment ideals? Enlightenment ideas spread when social reformers and revolutionaries claimed and fought for rights denied to them by ruling authorities and elite classes.
What was the focus for the revolutionaries of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries? They sought to fashion a fair and equitable society by instituting governments that were responsive to the needs and interests of the peoples they governed. Popular sovereignty, Individual Freedom, and political and legal equality
What were John Locke’s main ideas? Rulers derived their authority from the consent of those whom they governed. If subjects withdrew their consent they had the right to replace their rulers. Sovereignty vested in the people of a society.
What were the basic ideals of the Enlightenment thinkers? Popular sovereignty, individual freedom, and political and legal equality
What did Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract argue? In an ideal society, all individuals would participate directly in the formulation of policy and the creation of laws. The general will of the people would “carry the day.”
What was the American colonists’ attitude towards Britain after the Seven Years War? After the Seven Years War, Britain was struck with financial difficulties brought about by the way, which in turn caused taxes to go up in the colonies.
How did John Locke’s philosophies heavily influence The Declaration of Independence and in what way? His theory of government in arguing that individuals established governments to secure these rights and in holding that governments derive their power and authority from the “consent of the governed”
What principles were built into the newly formed American state? All men are created equal.
What reforms did the leaders of the French Revolution call for? Liberty, equality, and fraternity
What phrase summed up the guiding principals of the French Revolution?
What happened during the rule of the directory? Tried to find a middle way between the ancient regime and radical revolution; went from one policy to another. Constant challenges, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated and seized power
What was the turning point in Napoleon’s career? The turning point in Napoleon’s career was when he overthrew the Directory, imposed a new constitution, and named himself emperor of France.
How were the Creoles of Latin America influenced by the ideals of the Enlightenment? The creoles resented administrative control and economic regulations imposed by the Iberian powers, and sought political independence.
Terms, People, and Places:
“Consent of the governed” – From John Locke, an English philosopher; thought that the rulers derived power from the consent of the people they governed, and if the people no longer approved of their ruler, the people had the right to replace their rulers, vesting the power in the people.
Ancient regime – “The old order” French revolutionary leaders sought to replace this with a new political, social, and cultural structure. In the ancient regime, there were 3 political classes; Clergy, nobles, and everyone else; it was ruled by a king.
Augustin de Iturbide – Creole general, named himself emperor of Mexico and declared independence from Spain after seizing the capital of Mexico; not a very good administrator, so his empire did not last long.
Barnardo O’Higgins – Creole leader who helped Simon Bolivar campaign in Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru to get independence for South America
Central American Federation – The southern regions of Mexican empire declared their own independence forming the Central American Federation until 1838, which then split into independent states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
Concordat – Pact made by Napoleon with the Roman Catholic Church saying that the