Essay about WHAP Midterm Study Sheet

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FEUDALISM AND THE MANOR SYSTEM ­After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe became politically decentralized. No independent authority was able to give Europe the central authority it needed.
­The solution was the
Feudal System: Lords and monarchs awarded land to loyal followers and in exchange these followers guaranteed that their lands (fiefs) would be governed, crops would be grown, and that the land itself would be protected.
­
Nobles served politically and militarily
. They needed to make an army of foot soldiers that were recruited by the nobles and an elite force formed by the nobles.
­The code of chivalry was a code of behavior and moral that the knights had to follow.
­Economically, the feudal system relied on the labor of peasants.
Serfs were unfree slaves
. They were bound to the land and a portion of their crops had to be given to the lord. EARLY KINGDOMS AND THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE ­It took several centuries after the fall of Rome for Europe to stabilize. Internal factors: decentralization kept states weak. External factors: viking raids and Muslim Invasions.
­The Frankish kingdom (one of the oldest European nations after Rome’s fall) had a Frankish military leader
Charles Martel who established the Carolingian dynasty.
­Charles’ son,
Pepin
strengthened the ties with the Catholic Church (which was good because a leader who is close to the church is stronger).
­Pepin’s son,
Charlemagne
(Charles the Great) was more successful as a nation building monarch. He defended the Frankish territory against the Viking, barbarian, and Muslim attacks.
He greatly expanded the kingdom becoming the Holy Roman Emperor in 800, and he wanted it to be the “Second Rome”. ENGLAND AND FRANCE ­In 1066, Normans (French Vikings) led by
William the Conqueror invaded England and established their rule there. But they’re also connected to the French throne by blood ties. There was a lot of competition between England and France over land and political legitimacy.
­
Henry I
(1068­1135) son of William the conqueror. He sent judges throughout the country to try cases.
­
King John of England was Henry II’s son. He was not skilled on the battlefield and never conquered land. He was forced to sign the
Magna Carta(1215) because they didn’t like him as a ruler. The Magna Carta limited the power of the monarch and gave rights and privileges to the people. It insisted that he consult the nobles before raising taxes or waging war.
­In 1265, English nobility won the right to form a
Parliament.

­France fought a series of wars knows as the
Hundred Years War(1337­1453) against England.
It was a dispute between two royal families on who will be the heir of the French throne.
­The wars affected France and England politically. At first, England was winning, but with the help of Joan of Arc, France drive out the English. THE SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES ­The
Sui Dynasty
(589­618) reunified China and expanded its borders in a burst of military conquest. Despite its short life, it was the first strong dynasty to emerge after the fall of the Han.
­Even stronger was the
Tang Dynasty (618­906). Under the Tang, China became larger than ever before. Tang China forced many of its neighbors into a tributary system in which Korea,
Japan, and others had to make regular payments to avoid punishment.
­During the 800s, a series of peasant rebellions and military disasters weakened the Tang. SONG CHINA ­After the Tang breakdown, China fragmented into separate states. The largest and long lasting was the
Song Empire(960­1279)
.
­Despite its political troubles, the Song Empire was culturally and economically impressive. It enjoyed steady population growth and urbanization .
­Gun powder was used in primitive weapons and was diffused through Eurasia.
­Printing developed from wood block to the movable type. Porcelain dishes. MING DYNASTY…