The Senate of republican Rome particularly represented the landed aristocracy
Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT military service
Greek politics resembled Indian politics in the use of military rulers the end of the Gupta empire differed from the decline of the Roman empire in that it did not involve the introduction of a new religion for the majority after 200 CE, an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt faiths characterized by monotheism Nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires because they were more skilled horsemen
The lessons of late Han China and the late Roman empire are that the decline of a civilization, whether temporary or permanent is not simply the result of attack by outside invaders
How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste based social system
What was the nature of Islamic religion that developed in Southeast Asia?
Because Islam came to Southeast Asia from Indian was spread by Sufi holy men, it developed a mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religion
Describe inter-clan relationships in Bedouin society.
Inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
Describe the status of women in Bedouin society prior to Islam?
Women in Pre-Islamic Bedouin culture enjoyed greater freedom and high status.
What was the initial response of the Umayyads to Muhammad’s new faith?
They regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of the Ka'ba
What was the primary cultural contribution of the Muslims during the Abbasid period?
The Muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit ideas and culture from other civilization to another.
The Abbasids moved the political center of their empire to __
What was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women? the establishment of a harem
What was the impact of the Christian crusades on the west?
Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things
What was the impact of the Crusades on Islam?
There was minimal western impact on Islamic
What was the primary written language of the later Abbasid court?
What groups were responsible for the conversion of Indians to Islam? traders and Sufi mystics
Describe the Sufi movement within Islam?
The Sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism.
How did the Muslim conquerors of the Sind treat the Hindu and Buddhist residents of the region?
Hindus and Buddhists were treated as dhimmis or "peoples of the book"
What groups in India were mostly likely to convert to Islam?
Buddhists and low caste Hindus
What was the Ka'ba?
the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in Bedouin society prior to Islam?
They enjoyed greater freedom and higher status then Byzantine and Sasanian women
What was the nature of pre-Islamic Bedouin religion?
it was a blend of animism and polytheism
Which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is not correct?
Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population.
What was the Umayyad response to Muhammad's migration to Medina and subsequent success there?
War broke out between Mecca and Medina resulting in the eventual victory of Muhammad and the Medina clans.
What was Muhammad's teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions?
Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformations of earlier ones
Which of the following is not among the "five pillars" of