1. In living (biological) systems, potential energy is stored in concentration gradients and chemical bonds and transformed into kinetic energy to do work. List the 3 basic forms of work and give a physiological example of each.
Chemical Work – Enables cells and organisms to grow, maintain suitable internal environment and store information needed for reproductions, et al
Transport Work – Enables cells to ions, molecules, and larger particles through cell membrane and through organelle membranes in the cell.
Mechanical Work – At cellular level, moves organelles around in the cell, cells changing shape and cilia and flagella.
2. The 2nd law of …show more content…
Transfer of Amino groups b.) Oxidation - 4 2. Add Water to break bonds c.) Hydrolysis - 2 3. Synthesis of Acetyl CoA d.) Transaminase - 1 4. Loss of Electrons e.) Synthetase - 3 5. Adds a Phosphate group to a substrate
7. Most metabolic activities that occur within our cells aren’t single isolated chemical changes but, instead, occur as a sequence of enzymatically controlled reactions beginning with an initial chemical reaction progressing through substrates and ending with a final product. This sequence of events is referred to as a metabolic pathway.
This is one reason trying to find the causative agent in a disease is so difficult: there are so many steps to a metabolic reaction and the missing or malfunctioning enzyme could be at any one of these steps. What five methods are used by the cell to regulate the metabolic pathways?
1. By controlling enzyme concentration
2. By producing modulators that change reaction rates.
3. By using 2 different enzymes to catalyze reversible reactions.
4. By compartmentalizing enzymes within intercellular organelles
5. By maintaining an optimum ratio of ATP to ADP.
8. ATP production provides the energy required for cellular metabolism through catabolic pathways that extract energy from biomolecules and store that energy in a high-energy phosphate