By maintain the most favorable proxemic ( 3 ft. rule) distance between the client and counselor
Proxemics ( the study of boundries, body distance, and its influence on behavior. 3’ ft rule.)
Goal to maximize engagement minimize being a threat to the client. To avoid the client becoming disengaged enhance rapport & establish consonance (being on the same page, mutual life experiences) achieve a common ground of mutuality, congruency ( attitude match up w/thoughts, match up w/behavior) to get the client to disclose for the purpose of homeostasis (establishing balance and maintain a sense of normal, internal balance in clients life.
Counseling and therapeutic strategy that involves mutual self disclosure.I disclose, you disclose. Example: Do you like sports? I love football. What’s your favorite team? My favorite team is Pittsburgh Steelers.
Establish rapport, disclose similar life experiences with client.
Empathize (highest level possible of caring, able to place yourself in other people’s predictaments & feel their discomfort, to have compassion, grace, & mercy).
Establish consonance. Without consonance, you have dissonance. The nature of the communication becomes blurred.
Don’t be too personal.
Evidence states that cultures have similarities and differences in psychological traits and behaviors.
Ethnology (culture’s influence on the way we think) plays an important role in shaping human experience.
Richard Brisilin wrote “Understanding Culture’s Influence on Behavior.”
David Matsumoto believes that to be truly effective in delivering more effective psychologically-based services to the public by way of psychotherapy and counseling we must study the ethnological aspect refine and revise our theoretical understanding of human behavior to develop culturally sensitive methods of psychological assessment and treatment, which is an important factor in psychotherapeutic effectiveness.
Cautionary Memos - Are common observed behaviors and or values that are specific to culture and should be taken into consideration when counseling a client.
Hispanics –Display a sense of Machoism, Collectivism & honor
African Americans display high race consciousness