Locke’s prince-and-the-cobbler story describes a prince who leaves his own body and enters into a cobbler’s body. The prince would still view himself as the prince who once accompanied a prince’s body after the transformation. Although in a different body, he would still consider himself as the same person. However, to everyone else around him, he would no longer be considered a prince, and instead, he would be considered a cobbler.
Locke uses the prince-and-the-cobbler example to demonstrate the difference between the identity of man and personal identity. The prince has the same personal identity, one of being a prince, but after changing bodies, the prince would have a different identity of man. The prince would have no idea about the cobbler’s past life, but instead, he would only have recollections about what he had done as a prince in the past. The prince-and-the-cobbler scenario clearly demonstrates this difference between personal identity and the identity of