“Historically, the term glandular fever described a specific illness that was characterized by fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue. Later, glandular fever was identified pathologically as a mononuclear leukocytosis. When this discovery was made, the name of the disease was changed to mononucleosis based on its attack site: the mononuclear lymphocytes.” (Saccomano, S., & Ferrara, L., June 2013) Mononucleosis is transmitted through saliva or blood products. “Most EBV transmission occurs through direct contact with saliva, but transmission also occurs during the birth process and exposure to blood products.” (Saccomano, S., & Ferrara, L., June 2013) It is found in both males and females. Commonly found in adolescent. The common symptoms are fatigue, malaise, fever, adenopathy, pharyngitis, headache, and low-grade-fever. Typically these can be also common of the flu, but there are other symptoms that should alert the medical provider of mononucleosis. This virus also may present with a petechial rash. This is not always common, but if found, this is typically linked with mononucleosis. Also, if the patient states they have stomach discomfort or if their blood work shows decreased hematocrit, this is an emergency. Splenic rupture is possible, although it is rare. When a patient comes in with these symptoms, a prompt diagnosis is crucial. “The clinical diagnosis is suggested by classic symptoms of fatigue, malaise, fever, adenopathy, and pharyngitis. Prodromal symptoms include malaise, headache, and low- grade fever. Ten percent of patients present with a generalized maculopapular, or petechial rash. These clinical findings should alert the clinician to suspect EBV infection. An enlarged spleen is found in 15% to 65% percent of IM patients. If abdominal discomfort and/or decreased hematocrit are noted, splenic rupture, though rare, can occur in 0.5% to 1% of cases. (Saccomano, S., & Ferrara, L., June 2013) Early diagnosis and treatment not only will reduce the risk of complications but also transmission and mortality.
Treatment for mononucleosis is pretty much self-managed. If symptoms are caught early then home monitoring is all that is necessary. Mononucleosis can be managed with drinking plenty of fluids, bed rest and sometimes NSAIDs are prescribed as well to help with inflammation. “Treatment and management is bed rest, fluids and administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)” (Saccomano, S., & Ferrara, L., June 2013) “The overall incidence of mononucleosis in the United States is 500 cases per 10,000 persons per year. Symptomatic mononucleosis tends to occur in adolescents and young adults, although it can affect patients of any age. Mononucleosis is found equally in all