William Marbury, James Madison, And Chief Justice John Marshall

Submitted By crethuin
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Pages: 7

1. William Marbury, James Madison, and Chief Justice John Marshall. James Madison refused to hand over letters from former President John Adams giving Marbury a job as the Justice of the Peace in Washington D.C. William Marbury took Madison to court on the terms of Writ of Mandamus or failure to perform civil duties.

2. The court decided a unanimous (4-0) vote in favor of William Marbury with two abstained votes. They said Marbury was right, but the Supreme Court did not have the jurisdiction in the case. Both parties were in violation of the Constitution. This case created Judicial Review.

3. The decision in Marbury V. Madison empowered our court systems to have Judicial Review which was not outlined in the U.S. Constitution. This created another check the judiciary branch had on the other two branches. Making or judiciary system stronger than before.

Gibbons V. Ogden (1824) 1. Parties involved were Thomas Gibbons verses Aaron Ogden. A failed partnership and a dispute over waterways set the stage. Ogden wanted exclusive rights to these waterways as granted by New York Legislature, while Gibbons argued that only Congress regulated interstate commerce.

2. After the lower courts ruled in favor of Aaron Ogden, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Thomas Gibbons. The final vote was 5 – 1 with one abstained vote. Reinstated the Commerce Clause wrote out in the Constitution.

3. This case not only sided with Gibbons but the whole federal government because it gave it power to regulate interstate commerce rather than the individual state governments. Impacted America because no longer can local and corrupt governments regulate interstate commerce for self - gain.

Barron V. Baltimore (1833) 1. John Barron and the mayor of Baltimore were affiliated with the case. The city of Baltimore was doing construction and diverted it streams creating mounds of sand and dirt. The mounds made it too shallow for sailing vessels which created problems for John Barron. So he sued the city of Baltimore $4500 in damages.

2. The Supreme Court appealed the lower court’s ruling and sided with Baltimore. The Fifth Amendment that deals with the federal government giving compensation for private land for public use applies to the federal government alone. The decision was seven votes for Baltimore and zero for Barron. It made the Bill of Rights not apply to the states.

3. The case was important because it showed that the Bills of Rights outlined in the Constitution did not restrict states’ rights. This case really gave states the power to do as they pleased for a long time.

Dred Scott V. Sanford (1857) 1. Dred Scott a slave, Eliza Emerson/Sanford, and John Sanford was involved. Dred Scott was a slave owned by John Emerson which moved Scott to free territory. When Emerson died, Scott thought he and his family was now free, but Emerson’s widow and now current husband, Sanford, now wanted Scott due to inheritance. So Scott sued for his freedom based on his owner dying while Scott was in a free state.

2. The Supreme Court sided with the Sanford’s in this case. The court stated that the Constitution stated that judicial power shall extend to all citizens, but Scott was not a citizen of the state. So therefore, Scott had no right to sue. The vote was 6-2 in favor of Sanford. The case made it impossible for any slave of any type able to sue.

3. This case really set back the liberation of slavery back in America. No slave had rights and even if you are a slave that is living in a free state for whatever reason, you are still a slave.

Plessy V. Ferguson (1896) 1. The Parties involved were a 1/8 black man named Homer Plessy and Judge John Ferguson. The East Railroad Company in Louisiana had ‘separate but equal’ railroad cars for its passengers separating blacks and whites. John Ferguson sided with the State of Louisiana and its laws in his ruling and Plessy appealed the ruling all the