Mental Illness Paper: ADHD Contrary to popular belief ADHD is not a new disorder but rather one that has been long in the making. Records of adhd date back to as far as the early 1800’s. In 1845 Dr. Hoffman, a physician who focused on medical books on psychiatry, wrote unique descriptions about children’s behaviors, such as fidgety Philip. Dr. Hoffman wrote stories for children about children, in doing so he created the first known record of adhd disorder. It wasn’t until 1902 that Sir George F. Still got the medical communities attention and began studies on Attention deficit disorder. It was Sir George’s actions in bringing adhd into the medical spot light that has effectively shaped the way we see and understand those afflicted with this disorder. The chart below helps to illustrate the known progression of adhd in the medical community.
Before 1900. Symptoms of ADHD are considered a moral problem of children or their parents and discipline or punishment is seen as the best treatment.
1902. Sir George Still describes ADHD as a behavioral disorder that may be inherited.
1919. After some survivors of the influenza pandemic develop encephalitis and show symptoms of ADHD, the condition is blamed on brain damage. ·
1937. Scientists first report that stimulants can control ADHD symptoms. ·
1940. Symptoms of ADHD continue to be blamed on “minimal brain damage.” ·
1955. Ritalin (methylphenidate), a stimulant, is approved by the FDA. ·
1968. A disorder similar to ADHD called “hyperkinetic reaction of childhood” appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders for the first time. ·
1979. An article in the influential journal Science refers to "the hyperactive child syndrome." ·
1980. The third edition of the manual uses the name "attention deficit disorder" (ADD). ·
1994. The manual's fourth edition recognizes the disorder as "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder," with three subgroups. ·
1996. The second drug to treat ADHD symptoms, Adderall (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine) is approved by the FDA. Many other drugs soon come on the market. ·
2003. FDA approves Strattera, the first non-stimulant drug for ADHD, and the first to be approved for use in adults. ·
2003. The CDC reports that approximately 4.4 million children – about 8 percent of all U.S. children aged 4 to 17 -- have been diagnosed with ADHD, and 2.5 million of them are taking medication for the disorder. There are many myths that have become common misconceptions about adhd. Some such myths are that those who have adhd are lazy, that adhd can be outgrown, and that medication is the only treatment. These myths affect those who have the disorder as well as those who have yet to be diagnosed. Another misconception is that those who have adhd especially children will have to take strong pharmaceutical drugs every day for the rest of their lives. Although medications are an effective treatment there are alternative methods that can be equally beneficial and safer for children.
There are multiple types of ADHD, three in fact. The first is inattentive ADHD (previously known as ADD), which is marked by impaired attention and concentration. Second is hyperactive-impulsive ADHD, which is marked by hyperactivity without inattentiveness. The last is combined ADHD (the most common subtype), which involves symptoms of both inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Each sub-type has its own list of symptoms but the most common are the inability to focus or stay still, distracts easily, forgetfulness, fidgety, and unable to stay on task. According to the Mayo Clinic people with adhd have brains that differ from those who do not have adhd. Those with adhd to have less brain activity in the areas of the brain that regulates attention and activity control. Parts of the brain affected are the frontal cortices, anterior temporal lobes, posterior temporal lobes, Inferior parietal cortices, and