1. The ultimate objective of science is to understand the natural world we live in. Science is a way to investigate natural phenomena using observation, scientific method, measurement, and conducting experiments. A science is typically biology, chemistry, or physics. These are subjects that deal with objects, natural phenomena, or laws regarding nature. This investigation then leads to explanation and reason behind events. However, Science is continually refining and expanding our knowledge of the universe, and as it does, it leads to new questions for future investigation. Science will never be concrete; it is always subject to change. Sciences differentiate from other fields of study because there are no perpetual truths. For example, in math, two and two will always be four. In science, further investigation is always taking place and there is always room for modification. The tools of the scientific investigation are a series of steps called the scientific method. The first step is to ask a question. Questions that are answered by scientific investigation are based on observations and information gained through previous research or knowledge. All we know about science today has resulted from scientists who asked questions. After this, one must develop a hypothesis, which is a possible explanation to the question. Finally comes the actual experiment and analysis. One should not be discouraged if data does not back up their hypothesis. Mistakes may sometimes be the key to a new idea, or a significant scientific break through. This method is different from any other subject because the steps must be repeatable. Also, the process is objective to reduce a biased interpretation of the results.
2. In ancient times, it was common for science to be merged with magic, religion, mysticism, and philosophy, since the limits of the scientific discipline were not fully understood. Many natural events had obvious patterns, such as nights and day. However, Earthquakes, storms, and plague all appear to occur randomly, and natural explanations do not seem to be relevant. Therefore, supernatural explanations arose to account for such events, most of them merged with myth and legends. Science during the enlightenment was based on logical thinking and mathematics. It was also based on technology and everyday life. During this period, one wanted to know more about the world, the heavens, and oneself. Scientific thought had a stronger connection with philosophy. As a result, the Greek scientific spirit had a more secular approach. Due to its focus on philosophy, questions were asked, the first step in the scientific method. Science also incorporated engineering in order to develop the tools needed for discovery. “Aglaonike of Thessaly”, is known as the first female astronomer in ancient Greece. She was said to predict the cycles of the moon. Due to this knowledge, many thought she was a witch. Other male scientists were taken back by her ability to predict cycles of the moon, as well as lunar eclipses. Aglaonike created a school of astrology called, The Witches of Thessaly”. Hypatia was the head of a school in Alexandria. She taught astronomy, mathematics and philosophy. Hypatia also invented the graduated brass hydrometer, which was used to determine the density of liquids; as well as the hydroscope, a device for looking under water. Mary the Jewess is the first known alchemist. She had also invented several devices used for alchemy and…