The effects of the Protestant Reformation in England went far beyond the alterations made to Catholic doctrine. Starting with Henry VIII’s rejection of the papacy and concluding with the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559, English culture was altered indefinitely1. A striking feature of early modern English society was the institutionalized male dominance over women and children in the family. This centuries old patriarchal structure of society became more rigid with the onset of Protestantism. As a result, the female sex were subjected to an adjustment to their gender identity. Another defining attribute of the early modern period, was the importance of one’s credit. The combination of gender and reputation formed the enduring public identity of any person, constituting as it did the communal appraisal of an individual’s worth2. The notion of gender, in the early modern period, was redefined in such a way that women’s identities were sculpted based on the importance of credit in coordination with the deep rooted patriarchal structure of society, as determined from a Protestant perspective. This paper will thus argue that women’s gender identity was redefined with stricter boundaries, done so under the Protestant ethic, relaying importance on patriarchy and good credit. In order to do this, this paper will analyze how the transformed gender identity of women restricted their roles in the political, economical and social spheres of their experience of the transformation of society. It is important to understand that there is a difference between the concepts sex and gender. While both recognize the distinctions between men and women, sex determines the difference between males and females purely on biological evidence. Gender, on the other hand, is a notion that is sociological in nature, composing the feelings, attitudes, and behaviours associated with being male or female. Additionally, one’s gender identity is determined with their identification, or sense of belonging to a particular sex, based on biological, psychological and social reasoning. In the early modern period, as holds true even today, women’s experience of society differed based on what social class and geographical region a female belonged to, paying special attention to whether it was an urban or rural setting 3. Marital status also plays a central role in determining the way in which a woman experiences society4. The fluidity in the nature of the concept of gender is a prime reason to define what gender in the early modern period was and came to be. Women’s role in society had for centuries been prescribed by a model of patriarchy provided by Christianity. As Protestantism began to take hold it’s influence altered the intellectual and structural foundations of male dominance. The following five factors came to define this transitioning perspective: first, history, custom and language reinforced the intellectual and legal foundations of patriarchy; in turn, female subordination was thought to reflect the natural order; consequently, the patriarchal mindset recognized a close link between domestic and political order; in principle and practice, the law was reflective of this, and provided a fourth prop for male superiority. The fifth and most important ideological pillar of patriarchy was scripture. It was in Genesis 3:16, for instance, where it states that ‘unto the woman God said . . . thy desire shall be to thy husband and he shall rule over thee’5. This indicates a model of women’s obedience to men in marriage. This subordination of women derives from the Great Chain notion that women were designed by God to be inferior to men and that their impulsive, loud and loose nature was why men were sent on a relentless campaign headed by Church and the elite, in the oppression against women. For it was in the spontaneous nature of women that dire consequences for peace were created and thus social order was threatened by them. This highlights that tensions
the company sponsor Buddy Guy to performs in Montreal in “Festival International de Jazz de Montréal” next year. The sponsor can use Buddy Guy to advertise the products. She/he can also use “Festival International de Jazz de Montréal” to advertise his products, too. However, it cost a lot of money.
There are still many other media options such as Infomercials or ATM 15 seconds ads. Sellers are trying to discover and utilize as a tool to deliver the ads of their product.
Advertising media help companies…
Bailey’s mind” (356). She would use everything around her to complete her scheme and set things her way. She picks up a newspaper and shows him the news about a criminal on the loose from the Federal Penitentiary who is headed towards Florida, and attacks his conscience and morals by saying, ”I wouldn’t take my children in any direction with a criminal like that a loose in it. I couldn’t answer to my conscience if I did” (356). When her first attempt gets no response, she uses her grandchildren and hopes…
relation to his sons that “the men sit within doors working at the loom while the wives go out to get the daily bread” (368-370) in relation to their residence in a country such as Egypt. It was interesting to see Oedipus speak of his sons in a feminine sense due to their negative actions against him. It seemed that loyalty is looked at upon in that society is a masculine attribute and the loyalty of Antigone and Ismene goes against the norm. It is interesting how Oedipus states that his daughters…
Bake was a citizen who was denied admission in the California University in Davis to pursue a course in medicine. He claimed that the policies of affirmative action violated his rights besides keeping him out of school. He is significant because his case led to the declaration that affirmative action was constitutional. Through his case, the use of racial quotas became invalidated and some states banned the use of racial affirmative actions. Following the case of Allan Bake, higher education institutions…
I had a chance to watch you play over the summer and think you would be a terrific addition to the Berry Lacrosse program. I recently accepted the position here at Berry College in Rome, GA and could not be happier. I have spent my last 6 years as a Head Coach in New England and besides the weather being much more pleasant in the South, so is the atmosphere here at Berry. This place is absolutely amazing, and I would love to get you on campus and show you around.
Here are a couple…
quitting the job. Therefore, Master held all the powder and never accept the other staff’s opinion.
Q2. Imagine you are the management consultant referred to in the case study. What management style would you recommend that Master’s adopt to manage his different staff members?
Firstly, Master needs to pay more attention to delegate authority to the two department managers. According to Bartol (2003, pp.369-370), delegating appropriate responsibility to the employees who can achieve the required task’s…
It was found that global differences were detected more often than local
differences.” (pg. 353, Cognitive Psychology, 9, 1977)
C81 MPA - Practical Methods
School of Psychology
University of Nottingham
Navon structured his introduction using subheadings:
• Definitional Framework
• The Principle of Global Precedence
• Functional Importance of Global-to-Local Processing
• Some Empirical Evidence
Subheadings are generally used for longer research reports.
• Generally you…
wrong. Mother Teresa made it clear during her “Noble Lecture” speech in 1979 that abortion is wrong, stating “I feel the greatest destroyer of peace today is abortion, because it is a direct war, a direct killing—direct murder by the mother herself” (368). There is nothing more peaceful in this world than a baby. If a mother can kill her own child without any type of punishment or consequences, is this world really at peace? Abortion needs to end.
According to R. Sauer’s article “Attitudes to Abortion…
to enhance themselves as students of literacy. Although their motives may be different, literacy furthered their realization of their goals and persuaded others to follow.
Occom stresses the importance of the written word through his autobiography to help him achieve his goals. Occom states, “I had a stronger desire still to learn to read the word of God” to ultimately act as a tool to spread Christianity (405). Occom studied literacy in hope to improve the lives of Native Americans. Occom states…
Said: 1935 -2003; Palestinian-American literary theoretician; known for his book "Orientalism" which critically analyzed the western study of eastern cultures. Changed the way people thought about "orientalism" (not neutral anymore) Said, p. 3 "Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient."
Siddhartha Gautama: The historical Buddha. Lived from 566486 BCE/448-368 BCE in Northeastern India. Founder of Buddhism. Lived a life of luxury,…