WORD ROOTS Essay

Submitted By gsophina
Words: 8469
Pages: 34

Word Roots- Chapter 2 an- = not (anion: a negatively charged ion) co- = together; -valent = strength (covalent bond: an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons) electro- = electricity (electronegativity: the tendency for an atom to pull electrons towards itself) iso- = equal (isotope: an element having the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons) neutr- = neither (neutron: a subatomic particle with a neutral electrical charge) pro- = before (proton: a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge)
Word Roots- Chapter 3 kilo- = a thousand (kilocalorie: a thousand calories) hydro- = water; -philos = loving; -phobos = fearing (hydrophilic: having an affinity for water; hydrophobic: having an aversion to water)
Word Roots- Chapter 4 hydro- = water (hydrocarbon: an organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen) iso- = equal (isomer: one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties) enanti- = opposite (enantiomer: molecules that are mirror images of each other) carb- = coal (carboxyl group: a functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom) sulf- = sulfur (sulfhydryl group: a functional group which consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen) thio- = sulfur (thiol: organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups)
Word Roots- Chapter 5 con- = together (condensation reaction: a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water) di- = two (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together ) glyco- = sweet (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals) hydro- = water; -lyse = break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water) macro- = large (macromolecule: a large molecule) meros- = part (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules) mono- = single; -sacchar = sugar (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar) poly- = many (polysaccharide: many monosaccharides joined together) tri- = three (triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule)
Word Roots- Chapter 6

centro- = the center; -soma = a body (centrosome: material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and important during cell division)

chloro- = green (chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis in plants and eukaryotic algae)

cili- = hair (cilium: a short hair-like cellular appendage with a microtubule core)

cyto- = cell (cytosol: a semifluid medium in a cell in which are located organelles)

-ell = small (organelle: a small formed body with a specialized function found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells)

endo- = inner (endomembrane system: the system of membranes within a cell that include the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane)

eu- = true (eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a true nucleus)

extra- = outside (extracellular matrix: the substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded)

flagell- = whip (flagellum: a long whip-like cellular appendage that moves cells)

glyco- = sweet (glycoprotein: a protein covalently bonded to a carbohydrate)

lamin- = sheet / layer (nuclear lamina: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus)

lyso- = loosen (lysosome: a membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes that a cell uses to digest macromolecules)

micro- = small; -tubul = a little pipe (microtubule: a hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells)

nucle- = nucleus; -oid = like (nucleoid: the region where the genetic material is concentrated in prokaryotic cells)

phago- = to eat; -kytos = vessel (phagocytosis: a form of cell eating in which a cell engulfs a smaller organism or food particle)

plasm- = molded; -desma = a…