1. Give example of foods/ liquids in the following groups:
a. NPO: No solid food in the six hours preceding scheduled surgery.
Unrestricted clear fluids until two hours before scheduled surgery.
Oral medications one to two hours before scheduled surgery with up to 150 ml of water.
b. Clear liquids: clear juice, pop, water, broth and etc.
c. Full liquids: ice cream, sherbet, pudding, and creamed soup
d. Soft: Regular diet modified in consistency. A soft diet includes all the Clear and Full Liquid Diets, plus rice, pasta, cooker cereals, mashed potatoes, tofu, yogurt, ground meats, soft fish, bananas, peaches, applesauce, soup, creamed or blended vegetables, and soft desserts.
e. Regular: All foods, altered to low sodium, low calories, diabetic, etc.
f. Modified-texture: A modified regular diet simply consists of foods that are normally soft and moist, such as omelets, tuna salad, yogurt, ripe bananas, spaghetti with meat sauce, noodles, cooked cereal, all types of potatoes, ice cream, pudding, pancakes, baked fish, hot cereal and creamed soup
2. What physical symptoms, findings, or procedures in regard to a patient might you have to hold a tray for a patient or not allowed them to eat or drink? Eating food in its normal consistency is difficult and often dangerous for people who have trouble chewing or swallowing. Stroke, head or neck injury, cerebral palsy, missing teeth and other disorders raise the risk of choking on foods or thin liquids or becoming malnourished due to lack of the ability to handle foods of normal consistency.
3. What assessment and lab diagnostics and measurements can assist you in determining nutritional status in the patient? The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarized by the mnemonic "ABCD," which stands for anthropometric measurement, biochemical or laboratory tests, clinical indicators, and dietary assessment. This review will focus on anthropometric and dietary techniques.
4. Describe different types of enteral feeding and parental feeding? Enteral and parenteral nutrition are two means of delivering nutrition to patients who cannot digest food normally. Enteral feeding delivers liquid nutrition through a catheter inserted directly into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Parenteral nutrition provides nutrition intravenously or directly into the bloodstream. Both enteral and parenteral nutrition are provided in liquid form and can include medicine as well as food. Because it presents less risk, enteral feeding is preferred to intravenous feeding when the option is available.
5. Provide a list of at least four remedies for each of the following conditions:
a) Gastroesophgeal reflux disease- Treatment: weight management, avoiding lying down after eating, sleeping with head of bed up, dietary modifications, medication to reduce acid and surgical intervention.
b) Peptic ulcer disease- treatment: medication to destroy H.pyloric and reduce acid, diet modification individualized, endoscopic procedure, and regular exercise.
c) Constipation- treatment: regular meals, stress management, high fiber, fluids, and exercise.
6. Accurately define the following conditions:
a) Diverticulitis- Inflammation of one or more diverticula. The penetration of fecal matter through the thin-walled diverticula cause inflammation and abscess formation in the tissues surrounding the colon. With repeated inflammation the lumen of the colon narrows and may become obstructed. During periods of inflammation the patient experiences crampy pain, particularly over the sigmoid colon; fever; and leukocytosis.
b) Hiatal hernia- A hiatal hernia occurs when part of your stomach pushes upward through your diaphragm. Your diaphragm normally has a small opening (hiatus) through which your food tube (esophagus) passes on its way to connect to your stomach. The stomach can push up through this opening and cause a hiatal hernia.
c) Crohn’s disease- Is a chronic inflammatory disease