Workshop design and practice Essay examples

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Design and Practice, Laboratory Report 2012-14

Module title: Lab Report E2 Voltage and Current Divider

Course: Mechanical Engineering Design

Students Number: 3116868

December 2013

London South Bank University
Department of Urban Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment
103 Borough Road, London, SE1 0AA 1.1
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Chapter 1 ABSTRACT

Voltage divider calculates the missing parameter value. For given input voltage, R1 and R2 program calculates output voltage. For given input voltage, R2 and output.
A voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or potentiometer. It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, or to get a low voltage signal proportional to the voltage to be measured, and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies. For direct current and relatively low frequencies, a voltage divider may be sufficiently accurate if made only of resistors; where frequency response over a wide range is required, (such as in an oscilloscope probe), the voltage divider may have capacitive elements added to allow compensation for load capacitance. In electric power transmission, a capacitive voltage divider is used for measurement of high voltage. Current divider is a simple linear circuit that produces an output current (IX) that is a fraction of its input current (IT). Current division refers to the splitting of current between the branches of the divider.
The currents in the various branches of such a circuit will always divide in such a way as to minimize the total energy expended.
The formula describing a current divider is similar in form to that for the voltage divider. However, the ratio describing current division places the impedance of the unconsidered branches in the numerator, unlike voltage division where the considered impedance is in the numerator. This is because in current dividers, total energy expended is minimized, resulting in currents that go through paths of least impedance, therefore the inverse relationship with impedance. On the other hand, voltage divider is used to satisfy Kirchhoff’s Voltage law. The voltage around a loop must sum up to zero, so the voltage drops must be divided evenly in a direct relationship with the impedance.
To be specific, if two or more impedances are in parallel, the current that enters the combination will be split between them in inverse proportion to their impedances (according to Ohm’s law. It also follows that if the impedances have the same value the current is split equally.
A general formula for the current IX in a resistor RX that is in parallel with a combination of other resistors of total resistance RT is:

Voltage and Current divider applies theory of the solution of simple circuit problems.