Yusef A. Roberson
Dr. Elden Daniel
May 17, 2013
Marzano’s Nine Essential Instructional Strategies Basis
This book outlines instructional strategies that were found in effective instruction. These strategies are to be used by teachers to guide their teaching to maximize student learning and achievement. Marzano examined years of research to determine which teaching strategies had the most positive effect on student learning. It is stated that we are moving towards a more scientific approach to teaching in order to find what has the greatest impact on student learning. Marzano's research discusses educational research and teachers have an impact on student learning. The rationale for this text was to show that schools and teachers make a difference in student achievement. Research shows that teachers have a more powerful effect on students than the actual school. The instruction that students receive from different teachers varies. The researchers wanted to identify the differences between highly effective teachers and less effective teachers and what exactly was the highly effective teachers doing to obtain student success. This text encourages the usage of strategies by teachers to improve their daily instruction. These key research-based strategies have a tremendous impact on student achievement by helping all students, in many kinds of classrooms. They provide assistance to teachers to ensure that their students learn and experience success at school. Good strategies can be used in any content area so all teachers have the opportunity to use research-based practices. Personally, I believe that you will have to assess for yourself whether these strategies help your students improve their test scores, become more motivated to learn, or are better able to grasp the materials that you are teaching. In conclusion, these research-based strategies are data driven and teachers are encouraged to utilize them in their daily instruction. Study shows that students interact with the teacher more than schools itself and the impact a teacher has on a student plays an important part in student success and achievement. Teaching is no longer an “art” it is a “science” and the best used teaching practices are research-based strategies and tools.
Nine Essential Instructional Strategies
Identifying Similarities and Differences – Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways items are alike and different. Students compare things that are similar and contrast things that express differences. They classify when they identify features or characteristics of a group of objects or ideas, and then develop a scheme to organize those objects. Metaphors are created when two ideas or experiences are compared based on a common underlying structure. Analogies provide another way to identify similarities and make comparisons.
Summarizing and Note Taking – Enhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details. Summarizing of a reading assignment can be more effective when done within summary frames, which typically include a series of questions the teacher provides to direct student attention to specific content (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Successful note-takers summarize to develop some kind of understanding, which they are much more likely to retain. Students also benefit from using their notes as a document of their learning.
Reinforcing Effort – Enhance students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement by addressing students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning. Provide students with rewards or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal.
Homework and Practice – Extend the learning opportunities for students to…