areal differentiation- difference between placesareal integration- links, connections between places colonialism- the formal establishment of rule by a foreign powercounterinsurgency- designed to win over the local population and deprive insurgents of a political base. Insurgency is a political rebellion or uprising.cultural imperialism- promotion of one culture at the expense of anothercultural nationalism- defending a culture from outside influenceculture- decolonializationdemographic transition modelethnic religion- identified closely with a specific groupformal region- defined/official borderfunctional region- undefined named areas (suburbs) geographic information systems (GIS)- areal photos and remote sensinggeopoliticsglobalization- increasing interconnectedness, human and physical environments, continual reorganization of local and global geographies.gross domestic product (GDP)- services and goods INSIDE bordergross national income (GNI)- TOTAL inside and outside border | Hybridization- the end result of globalizationInsurgency- rebel group fighting against central authoritylingua franca- universal language (language barriers and melting potmap projections: mercator flatrobinson roundnation-stateNation a large group of people with shared culture.State a political entity with clearly defined boundary. neocolonialism-powerful states indirectly (or directly) extend their influence over weaker statesnet migration ratepopulation pyramid- rapid growth Nigeriaslow growth USzero/negative growth Germany prime meridianterrorism- violence against non-military targetstotal fertility rate (TFR)- average number of children born during a woman’s life. Below 2.0 is losing population negative universalizing religion- appeal to all people, regardless of location or cultureurbanized populationvernacular region- informal areas (downtown) regionremote sensing- electromagnetic imagerate of natural increase (RNI)- birth rate minus death rate |
Chapter 1 Review Questions
1) Summarize three elements of the controversy about globalization.
* Great inequality between rich and poor
* Export-oriented at expense of locals (job less)
* Not a “natural process” (man influenced)
2) Why is it common to use two different concepts—nation and state—to describe political entities?
Nation is a large group of people with shared culture.
State is a political entity with clearly defined boundary.
3) How do functional regions differ from formal and vernacular regions?
Functional regions are where a certain activity commonly takes place; whereas formal and vernacular regions are based off of cultural features and in ones mind.
4) Describe the differences between counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency
Counter terrorism is the neutralization of terrorist activities.
Counter-insurgency is designed to win over the local population and deprive insurgents of a political base. Insurgency is a political rebellion or uprising.
5) Explain the difference between GDP and GNI.
GDP (gross domestic product) services and goods INSIDE border
GNI (gross national income) TOTAL inside and outside border
Chapter 4 Key Terms
Altiplanoaltitudinal zonationBolsa FamiliaCentral American Free Trade Association (CAFTA)dependency theorydollarizationEl Ninograssificationinformal sectorlatifundiamaquiladoramegacityMercosur | MestizominifundianeoliberalismneotropicsOrganization of American States (OAS)remittanceshieldsquatter settlementssubnational organizationsupranational organizationsyncretic religionTreaty of TordesillasUNASUR (Union of South American Nations)urban primacy |
Chapter 4 Review Questions
1) Summarize some of the major environmental issues impacting this region and how different countries have tried to address them.
Deforestation (caused by commercial logging, agriculture and ranching)
Loss of biodiversity
Livability of urban areas
Water availability and