Essay on world history

Submitted By Girlfansoccer
Words: 5271
Pages: 22

HOW DID THE AGE OF REVOLUTION CHANGE EUROPE
FORCES OF CHANGE:
Cultural/intellectual change:
Enlightenment:
Rosseau: believed the government should be based on general will; democracy
Growth of literacy
Economic changes:
Middle class- business men wanted political rights to match their economic status
Population explosion: after 1730, population rose dramatically
French population increased by 50 % ; British population increased by 100%
Why?
Better boarder controls  limited the spread of diseases
New crops
Death rates dropped because of new medicines and knowledge (more cleanliness)
Population pressures forming improvements and industrialization
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
THE ESTATES:
1st estate: the clergy; 1% of the population; no taxes
2nd estate: the nobles; 2% of the population; almost no taxes
3rd estate: commoners; 97% of the population; paid all of the taxes
Middles class- 20%
Poor- 80%
WHO CAUSED THE REVOLUTION?
1) Nobility/ clergy
2) Monarchy
3) Middle class
4) Poor
5) Enlightenment thinkers
6) Circumstance (Combination of all)
SHORT TERM PROBLEMS:
Economic: French debt from fighting 3 wars
Bad harvests in 1788 and 1789  price of food increased
Political: unfair representation in the Estates General
3rd estate had almost no power wanted equal representation
Social: large younger generation – 30% of the population was under 21  more rebellious
FIRST STAGE OF THE REVOLUTION:
Fall of the estates general
3rd estate beaks free (leaves Versailles)
Met in an indoor tennis court
Tennis court oath – middle class wanted a fair constitution
National assembly put it together
Storming (attacking) of the Bastille: July 14th, 1789
Declaration of the rights of MAN- men are equal under the law and have certain rights : life, liberty, property, security, and resistance
Constitution of 1791:
Moderate- king as constant monarch – limited power
Legislature- limited elections (only the wealthy could vote)
Many people hated it (including Louis XVI)
War with Austria, Prussia, and England
RADICAL PHASE OF THE REVOLUTION:
War put huge strains of French people
Under pressure  new temporary government : Committee for Public Safety
Maximillian Robespierre Louis executed Jan 1793
Established strict economic (price controls)
Levee en Masse (raise the masses) – 850,000 man army
Reign of terror: 1793-1794
20,000-40,000 people executed by 1794, the war started to turn in France’s favor
July 1794- Robespierre arrested and executed
CONSTITUTION OF 1795
The directory was established
HOW WAS EUROPE CHANGED BY NAPOLEON?
POST REVOLUTION FRANCE: (after the Constitution of 1795)
Directory: 5 man executive branch
Ineffective and corrupt
Supported the military to stay in power
Napoleon Bonaparte: 1762-1821
Very successful as a leader  23 year old general
Married Joesphine de Beauharnias-
Had connections to the government
1797: Italian campaign made Napoleon a hero in France
Overthrows the directory -1799
Napoleon was the first consul of France
1800- becomes first consul for life
1804- becomes emperor of France- Crowned himself
Achievements:
1) Confederation of the Rhine/ German states put together
2) Code of Napoleon
3) Lycees- first public school  poor can be educated
4) ** Spread of nationalism mixed with militarism
Fall:
Russian violation of the Continental system
Invasion of Russia 1812 : army size goes from 500,000 to 10,000
1814- defeated by the Quadruple Alliance
Return of Louis XVI:
Isle of Elba
100 day return
Battle of Waterlog, 1815
Exiled to St. Helena
RISE OF CONSERVATISM:
Conservative beliefs:
The government should have a lot of power
Tradition is good; change must be slow, not sudden
Conservatism did not appeal to the underprivileged
Congress of Vienna: 1815
Very conservative in reaction to Napoleon, who was liberal
Maintain the balance of power
“Status quo”- redrew the map of Europe
Supported the monarchy and church
REACTIONS TO THE…