World History Essay

Submitted By adamcohen7
Words: 564
Pages: 3

Revolutions – Causes and Effects

England, France and Haiti all had revolutions that were unique in their own way. Absolute monarchs in England had to battle against Parliament. In France, the three estates angered the bourgeoisie, or middle class, who, although wealthy, were treated like peasants under the Old Regime. In Haiti, the French Revolution itself prompted the some 100,000 slaves to revolt against their greatly outnumbered masters. Each of the countries contains one-of-a-kind causes and effects that started and ended each revolution. Queen Elizabeth I often borrowed too much money. As a result, later rulers had to go through Parliament, frequently dissolving it. Eventually, in 1628, Parliament made Charles I sign the Petition of Right. However, Charles I ignored it after being granted his money. Parliament, in due course, passed laws to limit his power, which sparked the English Civil War. Charles I lost and was beheaded and Oliver Cromwell came to power. When he died, Charles II reigned, which is also called the Restoration, and Parliament ruled beside him. When he passed away, however, a Catholic, James II, took the throne and Parliament invited his sister, Mary, and Prince William of Orange, her husband, to overthrow James. When their army came in, James fled in what is called the Glorious Revolution. The result of the Glorious Revolution is that Parliament has now gained a clear and sturdy slice of power and created a Constitutional Monarchy. Representatives of the third estate in France were furious of the special privileges granted to the first and second estates. Also, high food shortages, taxes and thoughtless spending by the king produced an economic crisis. The fall of Bastille was a huge act of rebellion against the king that gave the third estate gunpowder and confidence. Finally, the bourgeoisie, or middle class, established a National Assembly that marked an end to the absolute monarchy and began a representative government. Eventually, Napoleon Bonaparte became the military dictator of France and instituted many of the Revolutions goals. He discontinued absolute monarchy and founded Nationalism, or a love of ones country. The result of the French Revolution was that the first and second estates lost their special privileges and the bourgeoisie were…