I. Turks Move into Byzantium
a. Osman Establishes a State
a.i. Osman was the most successful Osman
a.ii. His followers were named Ottomans
a.iii. Osman built a small Muslim state in Anatolia
a.iv. Their success was mainly because of the use of gunpowder
a.v. They replaced arches on horseback with musket-carrying foot soldiers.
a.vi. First people to use cannons as offensive weapons.
b.i. Osman’s son
b.ii. Declared himself sultan- overlord, one with power
b.iii. Captured Adrianople (important city in Byzantine Empire)
b.iv. They ruled through local officials appointed by the sultan.
c. Timur the Lame Halts Expansion
c.i. He burned the powerful city of Baghdad.
c.ii. Defeat halted the expansion of the ottoman empire.
II. Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
a. Mehmed II
a.i. Defeated the Venetians, invaded hungary, overcame an Italian army.
a.ii. First of four powerful sultans who led the expansion of the ottoman empire.
a.iii. Mehmed the conquerer
a.iv. Launched attack on Constantinople
a.v. Magnificent warrior
a.vi. Rebuilt city that was now called Istanbul.
b. Ottomans Take Islams’ Holy Cities
b.i. Selim the grim- effective sultam and great general
b.ii. Defeated safavids
b.iii. Took mecca and medina
b.iv. Also took cairo- the intellectual capital of the world
III. Suleyman the Lawgiver
a. Suleyman ruled for 46 years
b. People called him suleyman the lawgiver
c. Known in the west as suleyman the magnificent
c.i. This title was a tribute to the splendor of his court and to his cultural achievements.
d. The empire reaches its limits.
d.i. Suleyman was a superb military leader
d.ii. Soon dominated whole eastern med.
d.iii. Immense naval power
d.iv. Conquered all of north