Directions: Follow this link: http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/
Then, develop an outline of what you read in each part. This will serve as notes for this part of the unit.
*Notes should be in bullet-form and should address ALL of the items listed below.
Read through the prologue and take notes.
The first human-made catastrophe – World War I (1914-18)
Cause –a revolver that was used by a Serbian nationalist to assassinate the heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914.
Powers divided: The Allies (Russia, France and Britain) against The Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey)
The US joined in 1917 “to make the world safe for democracy” according to President Woodrow Wilson
Prior to the war, this part of the world had accomplished a lot of wealth and improvement, which led to conflicts, jealousy and differences.
From June to August nobody did anything, but by August, millions of Europeans saw war as a way to save their honor and solve internal and international problems.
With the end of the war, each side had dug at least 12,000 miles of trenches.
Three most interesting Trench Facts:
1) “A single pair of rats could produce up to 880 offspring in a year.”
2) A lit candle was effective to remove lice, but it was also very challenging.
3) “Soldiers in the trenches often depended on impure water collected from shell-holes or other cavities, causing dysentery.
Understand the organization of the trenches and read about the timing of attacks. If you can, copy and paste the image into your outline.
First trench (Firing-and-attack trench) – 50yds to 1mile from the German’s front trench
Behind this, was the support trench with requirements that can assist the front line
Further back was the reserve trench with men and supplies available in the emergencies
Connecting these trenches were the communication trenches to transfer any information necessary, supplies and men.
German trenches however were far different: elaborate tunnels and trenches with living quarters more than 50feet bellow the ground with electricity, beds, toilets and other necessities
Average killed soldiers per day for the British were 7,000.
Attacks between trenches were just before dawn or right at dawn because gases were more effective then.
If you have headphones, listen to some of the “Voices” throughout this section.
Part 2-Total War/Slaughter:
What is total war? Provide a description.
Both sides were targeting both civilians and military and also organized the men and resources at an unknown rate, the Great War was a “total war”
By 1915 the war had spread beyond its boundaries becoming a global war.
The first genocide in the 20th century occurred which was the ultimate form of total war against civilians
Read about “Women’s Contribution to the War Effort”.
Brave Englishwomen traded their jobs for more challenging and harder jobs in the weapons factories.
Two major dangers for the women – explosions and TNT poisoning which they absorbed in their skin or breathed it in.
In “Slaughter”, read historian Trevor Wilson’s commentary on General
Haig. Why does Wilson sympathize with Haig?
Haig believed in his group of soldiers and that he could bring great victories, which is why he failed. Wilson sympathized with Haig because everyone thought that he would be the one that would kill the people, but in reality he just wanted to save his men and be a victorious leader.
Slaughter – describes the extent of the killing, violence and destruction in the battlefields also known as “killing fields”
Watch the animated maps for the Battles of Verdun, the Somme, and Ypres.
The Germans attacked on Verdun, France in February 1916, and this battle represented the strength of France’s power and forces; 300,000 French and Germans were killed and over 750,000 were wounded.
Battle of Somme – British and French armies joined