Thesis: a limited subject or topic and the slant or approach of the writer to the limited subject or topic.
Topic: the subject of the paragraph or essay.
Purpose: What the writer wants his or her writing to accomplish.
Subjective: emotional/personal preference: the writer describes the topic of a writing piece as the center of action and as the source of the perspective. 1st person is subjective.
Objective: standoff and a less personal and more logical observer: the writer describes the topic of the piece as an object that’s observed. 3rd person is objective.
Person or Point of View: shows the writer’s relationship to the material and the subject.
1st-indicates subjectivity, the subject is speaking-I, us, we, our, me, my, mine
2nd-indicates an address to the audience, the subject is spoken to: you, your, yours, the “implied” you (commands)
3rd- indicates objectivity, the subject is being spoken about-he, she, it, they, them, their, one
Patterns of Development or style of writing: ways in which to organize, develop, and present writing.
Order: the points of support are presented in a certain sequence.
Chronological- the points are presented in a sequence based on time. Commonly used in narration, cause and effect, process analysis and anecdotal styles.
Spatial- the points are presented in a sequence based on space. Commonly used in narration, description, and process analysis styles.
Emphatic- the points are presented in a sequence used to emphasize the importance of the points. Commonly used in narration, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and argument-persuasion styles.
General-to-Specific/ Specific-to- General: the points are offered in a sequence based on their general-to-specific/ specific-to- general nature. Commonly used in cause and effect, compare and contrast, and process analysis styles.
Tone: the sense of a writer’s attitude towards self, subject, and readers revealed by words and sentence structure, as well as content.
Transitions: a word or phrase that links sentences and shows the relation between them.
Prewriting: a way for a writer to get an idea about writing.
Freewriting- writing everything down in one’s mind, which allows a free flow of ideas without correction or hesitation.
Brainstorming-listing ideas on a page, like a grocery list.
Clustering-the drawing of circles or boxes around the main ideas and allowing branches to form offshoots, to help show the relationships between the information uncovered by the writer.
Columns-the separation of ideas into columns, to show the opposition involved in the relationship of the ideas.
Parts of paragraph or Essay:
Introduction-the beginning of the paragraph or essay, usually has the thesis.
Body-provided to support and explain the points offered by the writer.
Conclusion-the end of the essay or paragraph, which usually restates the thesis and supporting points.
Proofreading: reading and correcting a final draft for any problems.
Revising: the stage of the writing process where one considers and improves the meaning and structure of the draft.
Audience: Whom you are writing to.
Student Checklist for College Academic Writing:
Subject verb agreement problems
Unclear pronoun reference
Pronoun/Other agreement problems
Incorrect verb tense and forms
Awkward sentence constructions
Vague words and phrases
Incorrect parts of speech
Necessary articles (a, an, the)
Point of view shifts
Patterns of Development problems
Key Words in Essay Tests
Classify-place things in a group because they are alike in more than one way.
Compare-use examples to show how they are alike.
Contrast- use examples to show how they are different.