Nile- flows north and wind blows south which stresses the importance of this geographic river.
Sahara desert- largest driest desert west of the Nile
* Mesopotamia rivers- Tigeris and Euphrates/ unpredictable flooding along with earthquakes. * Religious instability *
.Harappan culture Mohenjo dar
Aryan migrations Caste system Aryans
Four Noble Truths
2 Most Important rivers in India
Ganges river- religious and spiritual significance NOTE: THEY BURRY THEIR DEAD WHERE THEY BATHE.(need to know)
Indus River- Runs through Pakistan. Important for trade comm, agriculture, etc.
Harappan to the north Mohenjo daro to the South(need to know)
Went into decline into 1800 BC. Possibly environmental decline.
Dependent of the Indus river.
Settled in 900 BCE
Spoke in Sanskrit, Warrior or Marshall people.
CASTE SYSTEM created by Aryans didn’t happen suddenly(need to know)
A sacrifice religion/ Hinduism emerges out of Arianism.
Caste system * Four varnas
---Brahman-priests religious leaders
---Kshatriya- Kings, warriors, and noble leaders
---Shudra- Peasants and laborers
---slaves, untouchables, outcastes, foreigners
JATIS Occupation within
Hinduism( constellation of stars)
-Shiva Pashupati within Hinduism
-no single founder, origins are ancient
- several sacred texts refered to the vedas, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Upanishads.
-Hinduism reflects the belief that there are multiple, diverse ways to worship the fundamental reality of the universe, BRAHMAN.
HINDUISM TERMS * Samsara is Reeincarnation (trying to achieve perfection) * Karma is Collective tally of good and bad in your life. * Moksha want to achive brahman (released from the wheel of life. * Dharma Moral law of Hinduism (follow what your caste is) * Brahman Ultimate unchanged in reality *
BUDDHISM The Four Noble Truths -Pain and suffering are inescapable aspects of life -Suffering and anxiety are caused by desire and attachments in human life -People can understand and triumph over their weaknesses -This triumph can be achieved through the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path Paths of right conduct that one followed to purge attachment and desire in life Leads to nirvana, the place after enlightenment where the individual soul becomes one with , and subsumed into , the universe.
One or multiple lifetimes.
: All life is sacred, even things we would not normally consider alive.
Reject the caste system
War Chariots- used by shang dynasty
Bureaucracy- book keepers
Daoism (founded by Laozi)-may not be a real person.(simple life)
Warring States Period, 500-221BC – Constant warfare
Oracle Bones- to know the future(messages from the gods’)
Mandate of Heaven
Filial piety- confucious (what you are supposed to do like the caste system)
Yin and Yang
Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
Shang China:1500bc- 1050bc
Extensive use of bronze. Extensive use of chariot warfare
Established a bureaucracy
Extensive book keeping
DECLINE: Over extend in warfare Warfare expenses Overcame by the Zhou Dynasty
ZHOU DYNASTY 1050BC-256BC
Based around large estates, and kept Shang way
: Mandate of Heaven – Deities chose the dynasty to come to power as long as that dynasty