Anatomy and Kinesiology for the Performing Artist
Muscles of the Scapula and Shoulder
1. Why are the muscles of the scapula important?
a. By moving the scapula, it allows for a much greater range of motion of the shoulder joint.
2. What two issues do dancers and athletes suffer from, due to the synergistic action between the scapula and shoulders?
a. Upper back tension – prime mover, trapezius, elevates and rotates the scapula upward. In depressing the scapula, the lower trapezius, pectoralis minor and subclavius are engaged. With constant activation of antagonistic muscle groups, tension builds.
b. Pectoralis minor syndrome - tight, inelastic pectoralis minor. Causes intense pain with rotation of cervical spine or numbness in fingers on ulnar side of hand. Deep pressure massage will alleviate pain.
i. Seen in dancers, swimmers, pianist
3. How can a muscle both abduct and adduct? Give an example.
a. deltoid muscle. Contraction of all of the fibers of the deltoid, simultaneously, causes abduction. But when the anterior or posterior fibers contract separately, each section assists in adduction; anterior deltoid assists in adduction combined with flexion, posterior deltoid assists in adduction combined with extension
4. Why is conditioning the shoulder joint for stretch and strength important to dancers and athletes?
a. because the only structure to support the shoulder joint in the low, posterior quadrant is muscle tissue. This makes dislocations very common.
5. What are the six basic principles of lifting?
a. maintain good alignment
b. Lower your own center of gravity before lifting
c. Apply as much force as possible with your legs
d. Apply the force at the lifted dancer’s center of gravity
e. Apply the force in a vertical direction
f. Keep the lifted dancer’s center of gravity over your own base of support.
6. What are the four key muscle groups that should be strengthened prior to lifting?
a. Flexors and abductors of the shoulder joint
b. Upward rotators of the scapula
c. All muscles of the torso (for stabilization)
d. Extensors of the knee and hip
Coloring book pages: 54, 55, 56, 57
Misalignments, Imbalances and Assessment
1. What is muscular balance?
a. A balance in strength and elasticity of agonists and antagonists which perform opposing possible actions at various joints of the body.
2. What effects do pronation and supination have on the feet and ankles? What can a dancer do to correct these misalignments?
a. Pronations of tarsus – causes effects in both directions
i. Distally – weight bearing ii. Proximally – alignment of hip, knee, and maybe spine
1. Stretch and increase strengths of muscles supporting the tarsus
3. What problems do tight hip flexors cause for dancers? What can be done to correct this?
a. Stress on extensors
b. Bubble Butt and Thunder Thighs
i. Stretching hip flexors in positions of both abduction and adduction of the hip will help (Theraband exercises)
Body Types and Movement Behavior 1. What are the three main body types W.H. Sheldon describes? What are movement capacities and limitations of each?
a. potential for quick, sudden movement facilitated by efficiency of nervous system, but limited endurance because of cardiovascular system
a. excels at large, vigorous movements and has great endurance
a. maintains strength, flexibility, and endurance rather well
2. What types of warm ups do ectomorphs and mesomorphs like? What does each need? a. Ectomorphs like stretching b. Mesomorphs aerobic or bouncing - each group must do something needed and something that feels good when warming up
4. What are the four basic assumptions of movement behavior?
a. The human being operates as a functional whole
b. Each individual has a characteristic and unique pattern of movement behavior
c. There is a correlation between movement behavior and other modes of behavior such as personality, expression of…