A Description of Breast Cancer Essay

Submitted By ssajid228
Words: 564
Pages: 3

I.S.228 Sana Sajid 8O1 February, 7, 2013 Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer is a cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US. Many risk factors can increase your chance of developing breast cancer, but it is not yet known exactly how some of these risk factors cause cells to become cancerous. Hormones seem to play a role in many cases of breast cancer, but just how this happens is not fully understood. Hormone is a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells that makes up our genes—the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look. Some genes contain instructions for controlling when our cells grow, divide, and die. Genes that speed up cell division are called oncogenes. Others that slow down cell division, or cause cells to die at the right time, are called tumor suppressor genes. Certain changes (mutations) in DNA that “turn on” oncogenes or “turn off” tumor suppressor genes can cause normal breast cells to become cancerous. Certain inherited DNA changes can increase the risk for developing cancer and are responsible for the cancers that run in some families. Mutations in these genes can be inherited from parents. When they are mutated, they no longer suppress abnormal growth, and cancer is more likely to develop. Most DNA mutations related to breast cancer occur in single breast cells during a woman's life rather than having been inherited. These acquired mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes may result from other factors, like radiation or cancer-causing chemicals. But so far, the causes of most acquired mutations that could lead to breast cancer are still unknown. Most breast cancers have several acquired gene mutations. Breast cancer can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most obvious is a breast lump. But other symptoms include skin changes on your breast, such as redness, dimpling or puckering of the skin. Breast cancer also can cause a skin rash that looks similar to mastitis -- an…