A mir kiss Essay

Submitted By Adekunle-Mariam
Words: 2312
Pages: 10

BIO 120 FINAL LAB REVIEW
LAB 1
Cells have four basic features; plasma membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes
Prokaryotes are more complex than eukaryotes
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
Bacteria and Archae
Unicellular organism
Lack membrane bound nucleus, chromosomal proteins ,membrane bound organelles, nucleolus
Small compare to eukaryotic cells
Have nucleoid bacteria cells cell wall made of polysaccharides and amino acid
All cells have cell membrane
Gelatinous outer covering called glycocalyx, which traps water and protect the bacteria from dying out
Cell division by fission or budding
Have one circular chromosome
Have very thick glycocalyx called capsule, which prevents the bacteria from being destroyed by an animal immune system
Fresh living material is best studied under a microscope by preparing a wet mount slide
DNA material is stored in the nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell
Cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm of a bacteria
Cellular respiration and photosynthesis occurs in the chlorophyll-containing cell membrane in cyanobacteria

Organism – Anabaena
Phylum; cyanobacteria
Anabaena is filamentous with cells in unbranded chains , surrounded by a gelatinous sheath
It is sessile
Each cell in the filament has a cell wall and a plasma membrane
Thick walled heterocyst, to fix nitrogen
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Range from unicellular to complex multicellular organism
Have membrane bound organelles and nucleus
Cell wall made of cellulose (plant), or chitin (fungi)
Contain one or more paired linear chromosomes
Divide my mitosis or meiosis
DNA stored in the nucleus
PLANT CELL CHARACTERISTICS
Cell wall (cellulose)
Plastids
Single large central vacuole
ANIMAL CELL CHARACTERISTIC
No cell wall
No plastids
No large central vacuole
ELODEA LEAF
Each elodea leaf is surrounded by a cell wall
The cell contents (cytoplasm) are enveloped in a plasma membrane (regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell). The green structures are chloroplasts
Movement of cytoplasm within the cell is called cytoplasmic streaming
Cheek cells are colourless, stain is used to increase contrast, which allows you to see the cell and its components more clearly.

LAB 2
Eukaryotic cells
PLANT CELL
Each cell is surrounded by a cell wall, which protects and gives rigidity to the cell.
The nucleus controls cell functions, and stores genetic information. It is bounded by central vacuole, which stores water, enzymes, ions, proteins, pigments and toxins; provides support to plant cells through maintaining turgor pressure.
Mitochondria are sites of cellular respiration, a process that generates ATP from sugar
Onion scales lack pigments because they grow underground. The leaves do not have chloroplast

Draw Tradescantia cell

One of the distinguished features of plant cells is the presence of membrane bound organelles called plastids.
There are three main types of plastids; Chloroplasts, chrormoplast, and leucoplasts
Chloroplasts
Chloroplast are plastids that contain green pigments called chlorophylls and they are the site of photosynthesis
Green pepper cells have chloroplasts
DRAW A GREEN PEPPER CELL
Chromoplasts
Chromoplasts are plastids that contains yellow, orange, red or dark purple pigments called carotenoids
Chromoplasts functions in attracting animals for pollination and seed dispersal
Red pepper cells have Chromoplasts
DRAW A RED PEPER CELL
Leucoplasts
Leucoplasts refer to non-pigmented plastids that function in storage of starch, protein or fat(lipids)
DRAW AN EPIDERMAL PEEL OF TRADESCANTIA LEAVES

BANANA CELL
In the banana cell, the leucoplast form large starch grains.
Banana cells are treated with iodine in order to see the starch in the banana cell
DRAW A BANANA CELL

ANIMAL CELL
No cell wall
AMOEBA
Unicellular organism
Pseudopodia, allows for crawling
The skeletal components for pseudopods formation is microfilaments (moves the pseudopods)
Motility in other…