Le Science Review
[STATIC] [CHARGING] [CONDUCTION] [INDUCTION] [PITHBALL] [PITHBALL ELECTROSCOPES] [PITHBALL PROBLEMS] [ELECTROSTATIC SERIES] [LIGHTNING] [HOW IT STRIKES] [PHYSICAL EFFECTS] [PARTICLE COLLISION THEORY] [NEGATIVE/POSITIVE LIGHTNING]
[WET CELL BATTERY] [CIRCUITS] [SERIES] [PARALLEL] [DIAGRAMS] [SYMBOLS] [FUNCTIONS] [FORMULAS] [KIRCHOFF – VOLTAGE/CURRENT] [OHM’S LAW – RESISTANCE] [POWER] [COST OF ELECTRICITY] [RESISTORS] [ANALYZING]
-In order to create a charge, friction is required
-Protons do not move(except in certain circumstances)
-Electrons can move between objects
-Charges collect on objects. They are [POSITIVE], [NEGATIVE] or [NEUTRAL]
-Contact is involved - One object is more charged than the other - Electrons from [MORE NEGATIVE] objects are attracted to Protons on [MORE POSITIVE] objects. The electrons jump from the [MORE NEGATIVE] to the [MORE POSITIVE], and leave both objects [SLIGHTLY NEGATIVELY CHARGED]
-Charging an object without directly touching it
- Placing a negatively charged rod near a neutral sphere causes the electrons to repel.
- When the rod is removed, the repelled electrons are attracted to the protons of the second sphere
- The first sphere is positive and the second is negative
-Pithball electroscopes are used to determine the charge of an object.
-By charging the pithball, and testing an object, the pithball will attract or repel the object, thus, determining the charge.
Three pithballs are in a row. A negatively charged ebonite rod attracts the first one, which repels the second one, which is attracted to the third.
A) First Pithball = +
B) Second Pithball = +
C) Third Pithball = -
-Objects which have a strong hold on electrons are better insulators, because they do not lose their electrons easily.
-Objects that have a weaker hold on electrons are better conductors because with their weaker hold on electrons, they flow easily.
Using given data, determine the order of which objects have stronger or weaker holds on electrons.
Ex. [EBONITE] + [FUR] [NEGATIVE PITH BALL] = [REPEL]
[EBONITE] = Negative
[EBONITE] > [FUR]
-Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity, which is a form of static electricity
-Caused by the Cloud Particle Collision Theory - Ice Crystals and Soft hail have Positive and negative charges, respectively. Soft hail is more dense, and ice crystals are less dense, causing a division between the Positive and Negative charges in the cloud.
Anytime of the year
[HOW IT STRIKES]
-Lightning strikes objects because the negative bottoms of the clouds produce leaders, which are channels of gas, where electrons flow through. The objects also produce leaders, but instead of electrons, protons travel through them. When the leaders meet, lightning is formed.
For positive lightning, a “funnel cloud”’s positive top produces streamers, which are the same as leaders. The protons move until it meets with a negatively charged object, producing Positive Lightning
-When lightning strikes, the air is heated to 20000 C
-Caused by the heated air
Types of Lightning:
Cloud to Ground
-Greatest loss of life
- [-] clouds
- [+] ground
Ground to Cloud
- [+] ground
- ground initiates the streamers, instead of the cloud
Cloud to Cloud
The charges accumulate on the sides of the cloud and streamers meet
-Occur higher up in the atmosphere
- Heart can stop, but usually starts again
- Medula Oblongata becomes paralyzed, stopping