A.P Psychology Study Guide Essay

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Freud: The founding father of psychoanalysis free association: A psychoanalytical technique developed by Sigmund Freud which allows the patient to relate any thoughts come to mind for the therapist to understand the patient better. catharsis: The process of releasing repressed emotions. transference: An unconscious redirection of emotions from one person to another.
Humanist: Person-centered therapy (or client centered)
Rogers: A pioneer in a movement called humanistic psychology. non-directive therapy: An approach in which the psychotherapist refrains from giving advice as the client identifies conflicts. unconditional positive regard: A therapist creating a warm respecting and accepting atmosphere. empathy: The ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the therapist. positive regard: Warmth,affection,love and respect comes from others in ones life.
Behavioral: Aversion therapy: An undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the behavior.
Systematic desensitization: Behavior technique used to treat phobias in which a client is asked to make a list of the fears and are taught to relax while concentrating .
Token economy: To use objects to reinforce behvior in which the tokens can be accumulated and used for desired items or privledges
Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET): A form of psychotherapy that propose that unrealistic beliefs and goals cause many emotional problems.
Albert Ellis: The developer of RET.
Aaron Beck, cognitive therapy for depression: Depression arising from a "cognitive triad of errors".
~Know the various chemotherapies (drug therapy): be able to associate the major drugs with the types of illnesses that they are used for; also have an understanding of how the drugs work
Antidepressants: most work by enhancing effects of seratonin and norepinephrine
MAO inhibitors mop up norepinephrine and seratonin at the synapse
Tricyclics (TCA’s): blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine & seratonin at presynaptic (sending) terminals Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI’s): blocks the reuptake of only seratonin - Prozac
Lithium Carbonate: a salt used to treat bipolar disorder
Antipsychotic Drugs: most work as dopamine antagonists
•Thorazine- relieves positive symptoms, causes tardive dyskinesia
•Clozaril - relieves positive and negative symptoms
Anti-anxiety Drugs: Benzodiazapenes (Central nervous system depressants)
Other Biomedical Therapies:
•Ritalin (stimulant used to treat AD/HD)
•ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy): used to treat severe depression
•Psychosurgery: Prefrontal Lobotomy
•Bilateral Cingulotomy (new procedure used for OCD)
~Note: growth in use of drug therapies beginning in 1960s led to the trend known as deinstitutionalization.
~Names to Know: Ellis, Beck, Kanner, Rosenhan
Social Psychology pg13
The structure and function of groups
Norms: Normal behavior of a social group and its members.
Roles: The parts people play as apart of a social group member.
Role conflict: Emotional conflict arising when competiting demand are made on an individual in the fullfillment of their social roles
Social Dilemma/Social trap: A conflict between the individual and the collective interest.
Factors of group influence conformity (Solomon Asch): Changing ones own behavior to match that of others. informational pressure: Pressure to conform on a belief that another might know more than yo. normative social pressure: Going along with the group even if you disagree.
Factors that lead to conformity
Obedience: Changing ones own behavior at the command of an authority figure
Milgram’s study: Experiment measuring obedience to perceived authority figures.
Deindividuation: The sense of losing ones individuality and personal responsibilities.
Social facilitation: The tendency for the presence of people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task.