A&P I notes Essay

Submitted By Vanessa-Conyers
Words: 1935
Pages: 8

Human Body  11 systems  made up of organs – made out of tissue  made out of cells.

1. Integumentary System
Major organs: skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
Functions: protects against environmental hazards; helps regulate body temperature; provides sensory information

2. The Nervous System
Major organs: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs
Functions: direct immediate responses to stimuli; coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems; provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions

3. Skeletal System
Major Organs: bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, bone marrow
Functions: provides support and protection for other tissues; stores calcium and other minerals; forms blood cells

4. Endocrine System Hormones Made Inside Glands.
Major Organs: pituitary gland, thyroid glands, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads (testes and ovaries), endocrine tissues in other systems
Functions: Directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems; adjusts metabolic activity and energy used by the body; controls many structural and functional changes during development

5. Muscular System
Major Organs: skeletal muscles and associated tendons and aponeuroses (tendous sheets)
Functions: provides movement; provides protection and support for other tissues; generates that maintains body temperature

6. The Cardiovascular System
Major Organs: heart, blood, blood vessels
Functions: distributes blood cells, water, and dissolving materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature

7. Lymphatic System (Home for White Blood Cells) / Immune (Protection of the Body)
Major Organs: spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
Functions: defense against infection and disease; returns tissue fluids to the blood stream

8. Urinary System
Major Organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Functions: controlled water balance by regulating urine produced; stores urine prior to voluntary elimination; regulates blood ion concentrates and pH (measures how acidic or a base a solution is)

9. Respiratory System nasal cavities  Pharynx  Larynx (voice box)  Trachea  Bronchus  Alveoli (site of gas exchange)
Major Organs: nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, alveoli
Functions: delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs); provides oxygen to bloodstream; removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream; produces sounds for communications

10. Digestive System
Major Organs: teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Functions: process and digests food; absorbs and conserves water; absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the break down products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fat); stores energy reserves.

11. Male/ Femal Reproductive system

Exam #1 Oct. 11 (Lec+Lab)
Exam #2 Nov. 15 (Lec+Lab)
Final Exam Dec. 13 (cumulative)
Presentation due by Nov. 22 Functions:
Hard palate: mechanical digestion
Soft palate: helps with swallowing
Taste buds: tastes =/ flavors
Tongue: mechanical digestion
Epiglottis: closes trachea during swallowing
Trachea: air passage ways to the lungs
Esophagus: transfers food to the stomach
Thyroid glands: makes hormones that control metabolism
Ribs: protection of organs in the thoracic cavity
Heart: pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Lungs: exchange of air with the outside environment and the blood supply
Diaphragm: 1. Separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity 2. Helps with breathing
Liver: Produces bile. Bile? Helps break down fat
Gallbladder: storage sac for bile
Stomach: chemical digestion of food. Mechanical digestion
Spleen: make and store red blood cells
Pancreas: maintains glucose levels in the blood
Small intestine: site of absorption of nutrients
Large intestine: