Individual action can basically be described within the criterion of what is good or what is bad according to Stamatellos, G. personal ethics are values that influence the action of an individual. From the two theories of ethics utilitarianism and consequentialism individual action are based on outcomes. What is privacy? , how does it affect an individual, are they rules about how organization collects and share information. Information Technology has played a major role with the storage of information, retrieval of information, dissemination of information, and collection of information in our society. It makes information easier to collate, manipulate and analyze from different sources. An individual can exclude his or herself from information on the electronic format by either not giving out their information details in the first place or by taking necessary security measures such as password protection. However privacy can be defined as the “claim that individuals have the right to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals or organizations, including the state. Claims to privacy involve the workplace as well as the home. Information technology threatens individual claims to privacy by making the invasion of privacy cheap, profitable, and effective”. (http://www.angelfire.com/rebellion2/jsmith/case_5.html accessed on 20/11/2013).
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 12 states “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks”. [http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml] They are different type of surveillance technology
1 Database Surveillance
2 Internet Surveillance
3 Satellite Surveillance
4 Mobile Surveillance
5 ID Cards Surveillance
6 video Surveillance
(Stamatellos, G. (2007)
When people’s privacy is taken “we take away essential elements of their freedom and autonomy as human being” [Duquenoy, P. Jones, S. et al, 2008]. If knowledge is power the more people know about an individual the more vulnerable they are to manipulate and control them in decision making. (Migga, K. (2007) Nevertheless some information are necessary to provide services e.g. driving license, car tax, social services, and medical records. although individuals exchange their personal details in exchange for services e.g. passport registration in passport office, moreover the information shared could be personal information or public information. Personal information is information that is not public nor part of a public record. While public information are information that someone has provided to an organization that has the right to share it with other organization. [Duquenoy, P. Jones, S. et al, 2008].Information is money and for this reason some businesses buy and sell information derived from personal data. For example in 2011 two former employees of UK mobile operator T-Mobile who illegally stole and sold select customer data from the company in 2008 have been ordered to pay a total of £73,700, imagine the kind of data sold to the buyer and the owner of this the details are not even aware of their details been sold out, what about the implication if this details goes to the wrong hand.
Nevertheless many of information technology device are used for Surveillance such as mobile phones, digital and television cameras, microphone transmitter, camouflaging bug devices, etc. The main purpose of this technologies is to select different kinds of sensitive data. Examples are medical records, bank details, passport registration, military records, and police records. [Stamatellos, G. (2007]
The most well-known surveillance method is video surveillance using CCTV camera. They are