Q: Explain the causes of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln’s leadership
Abraham Lincoln suffered extraordinary pressures during the civil war. He carries on despite generals who weren’t ready to fight, assassinations threats, huge loss of life on the battle fields, and opposition from groups such as the copperheads. However, Lincoln remained brave and ready for anything. He didn’t give in to the pressure and end the war early. He kept fighting until the enemy was defeated.
Throughout the civil war Abraham Lincoln struggled to find capable generals for his armies. As commander-in-chief, he legally held the highest rank in the United States armed forces, and he diligently exercised his authority through strategic planning, weapons testing, and the promotion and demotion of officers. since the time of the revolution, two camps emerged: those arguing for greater states’ rights and those arguing that the government needed to have more control over the people. The first organized government in the US after the American Revolution was under the articles of confederation. The thirteen states formed a loose confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weakness of the government cause leaders of the time to come together at the constitutional convention and create, in secret, the US constitution as America began to expand, first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican war, the question of whether new states were admitted to the union would be slave free. The Missouri compromise passed in 1820 stated a rule that prohibited slavery in states from the former Louisiana Purchase. During the Mexican war, conflict started about what would happen with the new territories that the US expected to gain in victory. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot proviso (1846) which would ban slavery in the lands. But this was shot down to much debate. The compromise in 1850 was created by Henry Clay to deal with the balance between slave and Free states, northern and southern interests. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be a slave or free man/women. Even though things were already coming to a head, when Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued the “Declaration of the Causes of Secession.” They believed that he was anti- slavery and in favour of the northern interests.
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12-14, 1861) was the bombing and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the US Army abandon facilities in the harbor (Charleston Harbor). On December 26 (1860), US major Robert Anderson moved his small command from the indefensible fort Moultrie on Sullivan’s island to Fort Sumter, a substantial fortress controlling the entrance of the Charleston Harbor.
During the early months of 1861, the situation around Fort Sumter increasingly began to resemble a siege. On March, Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, the first General Officer of the newly formed Confederate States of America, was placed in command of the forces in Charleston. Beauregard directed the strengthening of batteries around Charleston harbor aimed at Fort Sumter.
The resupply of Fort Sumter became the first crisis of the administration of President Abraham Lincoln. He notified the Governor of South Carolina, (Francis W. Pickens), that he was sending supply ships, which resulted in an ultimatum from the confederate Government. Major Anderson refused to surrender. Beginning at 4:30 am on April 12, the Confederates bombarded the fort from artillery batteries surrounding the harbor. Although the union garrison returned fire, they were outgunned and, 34 hours later,