a. Became known in the late 80s
i. Similar people get selected and kept and choose to stay in an organization…. Schneider’s ASA
II. What are we talking about?
a. There are multiple different ways to think about fit in a job related context:
i. Person-Environment Fit: broadest term; degree to which an individuals’ characteristics match environmental characteristics (organizational features) ii. Person-Vocation Fit: matching people with careers that match their interest iii. Person-Job Fit: focuses on the relationship between a person’s characteristics and those of the job or tasks that are performed at work (demands-ability fit) iv. Person-Group Fit: compatibility between individuals and their work groups
v. Person-Supervisor Fit: compatibility between the supervisor and subordinate vi. Person-Organization Fit: compatibility between people and ENTIRE organizations
III. What is it?
a. Compatibility between employees and their organization resulting from one party supplying the needs of another party and/or similar values across parties.
i. Supplementary fit: A person adds something that is missing in the organization ii. Complementary fit: A person has characteristics that are similar to those present in the organization
1. E.g.: Select for complementary fit for knowledge and skills but supplementary fit for values and personality iii. Needs-supply: The extent that needs expected (e.g. benefits, salary) are fulfilled by the organization iv. Demands-abilities The extent to which an individual meets the demands (KSAOs) of the organization
IV. Why Care?
a. Attitudinal Outcomes
i. Intent to quit, satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification., perceived organizational support,
b. Behavioral Outcomes (mixed results)
i. OCBs, turnover, and mixed results for performance
c. Bottom line: people who feel they fit in better perform better and stay with organizations longer
d. Some objections (e.g. lack of creativity; friends vs. organization)
V. Multiple Models
a. Attraction-Selection-Attrition Model
i. Schneider (1987): “The people make the place”
1. Attraction: Preferences, personality, and values are perceived as congruent with the organization
2. Selection: Recruit and hire individuals with similar values and personalities
3. Attrition: turnover occurs in individuals who don't “fit” ii. Criticism is it doesn't take into account environmental and potential individual changes over time
b. Organizational Culture Profile (OCP)
i. O’Reilly, Chatman, & Cardwell (1991)
1. Assesses 7 dimensions of organizational culture: innovation, stability, orientation towards people (supportive, just), orientation towards outcomes (e.g. results or achievement oriented), easy going vs. aggressive,…