Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender.(Wikipedia) It seems quite often that women are unlikely to have top jobs (glass celling),and they are paid less in spite of doing the same workforce with men. Moreover, it is women who accept most part-time works and fill in those special areas like cashing (horizontal segregation). So, some experts suggest that in twenty-first century, women can be regarded as a ‘reserve army of labour’, prepared to get into the market when it is required. This essay will critically examine this idea by inducing several theories on women and work like Marxist views, and evaluate them afterwards.
It is true that women are at an inferior status in the
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She pointed out a general fact that there are jobs for males and females, not jobs can be filled by either of them only. Strangely, sexual work is integral to many of women’s jobs- sexual attraction will be the best sales. Furthermore, there are lots who choose to follow non-conventional career, as which Hakim agreed. Hakim (2004) thought there are three types of women: home-centered, adaptive and work-centered. The last seems rebellious from conventional view-they choice to work rather take care of family. Obviously, personal choice is the most important element that matters. While functionalism disagrees. Parson argues women are naturally suited to expressive role of childcare-implies women give up or interrupt careers in order to have and care for their children.
The previous explanations have all mentioned tradition, more or less, and it seems they are not alone. Crompton and Sanderson (1990) claimed the labour market is structural. The structure of labour market shapes people, making individual decisions about their lives, but on the other hand, not determines them entirely. For example, it is true women dominate nursing while there are some males involved within the industry, a tiny part though- that is to say, exceptions are always there. Linking to Crompton and Sanderson, Wilkinson made up his mind believing that changes have been made by generations. ‘Evidence of values and attitudes suggests major generational