Essay about American History A Survey Chapter 2

Submitted By nattlesrose
Words: 3302
Pages: 14

1)The Early Chesapeake

a)The Founding of Jamestown

i)Charter granted to London Company in 1604 by King James I, Godspeed, Discovery, and Susan Constant left England and landed in Jamestown, VA in 1607

ii)Colony mostly al men, inadequate diets contributed to disease, by 1608 colony had almost failed (poor leadership, location, disease, food) except Capt. John Smith saved it by imposing work and order and organizing raids against Indians

b)Reorganization

i)London Company became Virginia Company 1609, gained expanded charter, sold stock, wish to grew VA colony with land grants to planters

ii)Winter of 1609-1610= starving time

iii)First governor Lord De La Warr arrived 1609, established harsh discipline w/ work gangs

iv)Communal system didn’t work well, Governor Dale thought better off with personal incentive to work and private ownership

c)Tobacco

i)1612 VA planter John Rolfe began to grow tobacco, cultivation spread, created a tobacco economy that was profitable, uncertain, and high labor and land demands, created need for territorial expansion

d)Expansion

i)Tobacco still not enough to make profits, 1618 campaign to attract settlers

ii)Headright system- land grants to new settles, encouraged family groups to migrate together, rewarded those who paid for passages of others

iii)Company brought women and skilled workers, allowed for a share in self-govt (VA House of Burgesses met July 30, 1619)

iv)1919 saw arrival of first Negro slaves on Dutch ship, but palnters continued to favor indentured servants until at least 1670s b/c cheaper and more abundant

v)Colony grew b/c Indians suppressed, Sir Thomas Dale led assaults, huge uprising staged by Powhatans in 1622 but eventually put down, again 1644

vi)By 1624 Virginia Company defunct, lost all funds, charter revoked by James I and colony put under control of crown

e)Exchanges of Agricultural Tech

i)Survival of Jamestown result of agricultural tech developed by Indians and borrowed by English, such as value of corn w/ its high yields, beans alongside corn to enrich soil

f)Maryland and the Calverts

i)Dream of George Calvert (first Lord Baltimore) as speculative venture + retreat for English Cath. oppressed by Anglican church, 1632 son Cecilius (second Lord Balt) got charter from king, made complete sovereigns of new land

ii)1634 Lord Balt named brother Leonard Calvert governor, settlers arrived in Maryland

iii)Calverts invested heavily, needed many settlers to make profit, encouraged Prot. as well as Catholics (Cath became minority), “Act Concerning Religion” granted toleration; yet politics in MD plagued by tension btwn Catholic minority and Prot. majority, civil war 1655

iv)Proprietor was absolute monarch, Lord Balt. granted land to relatives and other English aristocrats, labor shortages required headright system

g)Turbulent Virginia

i)Mid 17th century VA colony had larger pop, complexity and profitability of economy, debates over how to deal with Indians

ii)Sir William Berkeley apptd governor by King Charles I 1642, put down 1644 Indian uprising and agreed to not cross settlement line. Impossible to protect Indian territory b/c of growth of VA after Cromwell’s victory in English Civil War and flight of opponents to colony

(1)Choice lands along river occupied, new arrivals pressed westward

iii)At first vote extended to all, later only to landowners and elections rare, led to recent settlers in “back country” to be underrepresented

h)Bacon’s Rebellion

i)Nathaniel Bacon and other members of backcountry gentry disagreed on policies toward natives, backcountry in constant danger from Indian attack b/c on land reserved to natives by treaty, believed east. aristocracy wanted to protect dominance by holding down white settlers in west

ii)Bacon on governors council, in 1675 led counter-attacks against Indians against governors orders, kicked off council, unauthorized assault on Indians became a…