AP Art History Late Antiquity And The Periods After Essay

Submitted By jalynriley
Words: 2252
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Jalyn Nwogu
Arguelles
AP Art History
8 October 2014

Late Antiquity
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Late Antiquity Roman Empire ”melting pot”
Christians, Pagans, Jews

Jewish Religion
­ Characterized by spirituality, spiritualism, and faith
­ Monotheistic (Yahweh)
­ Patriarchs­ Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
­ Prophets­ mouthpieces of God
­ Hebrew Scriptures: The Law, The Prophets, and The Writings
­ Belief that Jews were the “chosen people”
Synagogue at dura­europos
245­256 CE
­ artifacts from Christians, Pagans, Jews
­ Christians still being persecuted during this time
­ Pagan ( only religion accepted)
­ Before Constantine

Dead Sea Scrolls
1st century BCE­ 1st century CE

Menorah and the ark of the covenant, Jewish catacomb
3rd Century CE
­ Jews carried the ark of the covenant

Early Christian Religion
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Monotheistic
Greco­roman influence (Constantine), Jewish influence (shared Old Testament)
Evangelism (led to quick spread of religion)
Constantine I instituted tolerance in 313 CE after a long period of Roman persecution
At first iconoclastic (idols, against idols) because of belief that figural representation was akin to idol worship

Jesus the Good Shepherd
3rd Century CE
­ at first would make jesus look like an innocent child then transitioned to a more an adult­like royal idol
­ greek influence

Jesus the Good Shepherd (catacomb fresco)
Early 4th century CE
­ fresco: put wet plaster and paint with egg yolk tempura while the plaster is still wet
­ mix of Old Testament and New Testament
­ Christian adaptation
­ Jesus portrayed as strong; roman portray

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
359 CE
­ converted to Christianity on death bed
­ was mayor of the town
­ Christian imagery
­ Pagan influence
­ Jewish imagery
­ Jesus sitting on the throne with his feet on the head of the sky god
­ marble
­ member of a senatorial family, died at 42
­ sarcophagus portrays his transformed status of Christianity

Construction of Old St Peter’s, basilica
320 CE
­ during Constantine era
­ apse: half circular area where the minister/pastor would speak
­ 4th­16 century
­ new Old St. Peter’s, Vatican city ( today)
­ built of circus of Nero
­ Reign of Emperor Constantine I
­ Gained great importance
­ sight of St.Peter’s grave
­ 3 thousand to 4 thousand people

Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome
430 CE
­ apse

Santa Constanza, Rome
350 CE
­ Constantine’s daughter (Constina), a mausoleum dedicated to her; also a burial site
­ central plan; a big circles, 2 circles
­ corinthian
­ Dionysus: god of wine; Greek/Roman Mythology influence
­ built under the ruler of Constantine the I
­ mausoleum
­ dedicated to saint constanza
­ walls have mozaic paintings; show the Christ as the Pantocrator

Panel of ivory carving, Judas suicide and Jesus’ crucifixion
420 CE
­ not realistic; crudeish
­ one of the panels of a square casket the stories before display the events leading before the suicide/crucifixion
­ earliest portrayal of jesus’s crucifixion
­ plaque mens “King of the Jews”
­ portrays Jesus as powerful even when killed

Jalyn Nwogu
Arguelles
AP Art History
17 October 2014

Byzantium
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Eastern capital established by Constantine
Primary capital of the Byzantine empire
Orthodox Christianity only permitted religion

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Divided into First and Second Golden Ages, separated by an era of Iconoclasm

San Vitale, Ravenna
526­547
­ The Western Capital moved from Rome to Ravenna, the move was because it was easier to rule
­ Eastern and Western ruled united under one empire under the Justinian rule
­ most important example of Christian­Byzantine architecture
­ Julius Argentarius gave funding to build the church
­ holds many mosaic
­ ***biggest patrons of the art were the churches

Justinian, Ravenna Mosaic, San Vitale
547
­ not…