1. cartel: a big group of individual commercial enterprises who work together to keep the prices steady and the competition down.
2. economic depression: when the economy such as agricultural products and profits form business cycles are falling and the economy suffers greatly.
3. la belle époque: an age of prosperity in European civilization
4. anarchism: a belief or theory that state the government and social institutions are not needed in society and should be ruled by voluntary cooperation.
1. electricity: a new form of energy that was used religiously and could be used in the form of heat, light, and motion. The use of hydroelectric power stations and coal fired steam generator plants powered many buildings through one power source. Through electricity the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison and Briton Joseph Swan. Also, the telephone and the radio was created through the use of electricity. electric railways and new machines in factories were powered by electricity and made society and life much more efficient. Overall, the new source of power allowed them to move forward in the industrial age.
2. internal combustion engine: it is powered by liquid fuels and rose the numbers of cars and airplanes produced. Light engine was used to power cars. Henry Ford mass produced the car industry and Orville Wright made the first fixed wing plane powered by gasoline engine. Many of these aircrafts were used in WWI.
3. assembly line: used to make production in factories more efficient amongst workers and were used mostly for nonmilitary goods.
4. Second Industrial Revolution: invented the basic economic patterns used in European economic life. It was viewed as a time of economic prosperity yet depicted as the great depression, such as great Britain and France were struggling while Germany and united states were recovering from the depression.
5. white-collar jobs: new job opportunities for women such as mining, engineering, and electrical sectors, this decreased the number of women in manufacturing. The white collar jobs had low wages and were dominated by women. The expansion of government services allowed women even more chances for a job. Many new white collar jobs were boring and offered special advantages to middle and upper middle class women, such as freedom from domestic patterns and an opportunity to escape from the dirty jobs of the lower class.
6. German Social Democratic Party: first socialist party that gave merit to Marx and was the oldest German party.
7. Marxist “revisionism”/evolutionary socialism: belief of socialist that states there should be cooperation and evolution to maintain power by democracy, not by revolutions, this main idea was stated by Eduard Bernstein.
8. Eduard Bernstein: member of the German social democratic party. He spent his years of exile in Britain and there he became influences by English socialism and the British Parliamentary system. He wrote the book Evolutionary Socialism, challenging the ideas of Marxism and proving them inaccurate or wrong. Nevertheless, this book was condemned as heresy and opportunism by the French and German socialists leader and the second International.
9. Michael Bakunin: believed that a small groups of fanatical revolutionaries who were well trained could solve many problems such as violence.
1. The second industrial revolution resulted in many political, social, and economic changes. The new chemicals introduces to take over industries and the form of electricity used as power to make factories and transportation more efficient was a source of economic change. another economic change was the internal combustion engine and tariff and cartels. Politically the Germans were in charge of the industrial leadership and now had different European economic zones. Socially the industrialization was spread amongst many countries making i more popular and