The first photographic technologies were produced during the 1830s and 40s.
The British inventor Fox Talbot produced his first successful photographic images in 1834, without a camera, by placing objects onto paper brushed with light-sensitive silver chloride, which he then exposed to sunlight.
By 1840, Talbot had succeeded in producing photogenic drawings in a camera, with short exposures yielding an invisible or ‘latent’ image that could be developed to produce a usable negative. was patented as the calotype in 1841
Talbot’s negative-positive process formed the basis of almost all photography on paper up to the digital age. (British Library)
Realism (artistic movement of the 19th. Century)
Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution
Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against the exaggerated emotionalism of the Romantic Movement.
Leading proponent was Gustave Courbet
Rejecting the idealized classicism of academic art and the exotic themes of Romanticism (Finocchio)
A French 19th century art movement that marked a momentous breaks from tradition in European painting. The Impressionists incorporated new scientific research into the physics of color to achieve a more exact representation of color and tone.
The result was to emphasize the artist’s perception of the subject matter as much as the subject itself. style in which the artist captures the image of an object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse of it. pictures with a lot of color and most of their pictures are outdoor scenes.
Some of the greatest impressionist artists were Edouard Manet, Camille Pissaro, Edgar Degas, Alfred Sisley, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot and Pierre Auguste Renoir.
Manet influenced the development of impressionism.
While the term Impressionist covers much of the art of this time, there were smaller movements within it, such as Pointillism, Art Nouveau and Fauvism. (artmovements)
Name: Term used to describe a certain type of art and literature in mid-19th century France.
Who: Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet, Rosa Bonheur, Gustave Caillebotte, Honoré Daumier, Thomas Eakins, and Winslow Homer.
Where: Western Europe (primarily France) and the United States.
What: Movement in art and literature that rejected the subjective, emotional, exotic characteristics of Romanticism. Instead, artists and writers concentrated on observable, contemporary reality.
Subject Matter: Down-to-earth, everyday subjects: landscapes; peasants; ordinary, working-class people; observable, contemporary life. Only the visible world is shown; scenes centering on mythology, history or religion were avoided.
Style: Emphasis on naturalism, that is, the accurate depiction of nature without it being overly romanticized or sentimentalized. Ordinary people shown with same dignity previously bestowed on images of kings, saints and aristocrats. In a sense, Realist painters tried to do away with a personal, artistic "style" in order to make their paintings more "truthful."
Janson and Kissick Example: COURBET, The Stone Breakers, 1849.
Influenced by: Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Velázquez, Zurburan, Louis Le Nain, Charles Baudelaire (a 19th century writer who called for an art that would use the "heroism of modern life" as its subject), European revolutions of 1848, Socialism, and early photography.
Will influence: Pre-Raphaelites, Impressionism, and American Scene Painting.
Name: The derogatory term was coined by critic Louis Leroy of the Parisian journal Le Charivari in response to the unfinished quality of Monet's Impression: Sunrise of 1872 (exhibited at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874). For Leroy, the work