2. Nation Building in Italy and Germany
Italy to 1850
1. Three approaches to unifying Italy:
Mazzini’s centralized democratic republic.
Vincenzo Gioberti’s federation of existing states headed by the Pope.
Italian nation built around aristocratic kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont.
Cavour and Garibaldi in Italy
Cavour (head of Sardinian government, 1850-1861) sought to unify northern and central Italy under Sardinian rule.
With French aid, he defeated Austria in 1859 and gained Lombardy.
Central Italy voted to join Sardinia.
Giuseppe Garibaldi led a patriotic expedition to the kingdom of Two Sicilies, overthrew the government, and presented southern Italy and Sicily to Sardinia (1860).
Germany Before Bismarck
German customs union (Zollverein) unified the northern German states, but excluded Austria.
The national uprising in Italy made a profound impression in the German states.
William I of Prussia sought to reform the army and strengthen the state.
The parliament rejected the new military budget in 1862 and the liberals triumphed in new elections.
William called on Otto von Bismarck to head a new ministry and defy the parliament.
Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian War, 1866
Bismarck collected taxes without permission of the Prussian parliament.
Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark in 1864 war over Schleswig-Holstein.
The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in a Prussian victory and the establishment of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership.
3. Explain the origins of modern anti-Semitism in Europe.
• Jews gradually gained their civil rights in 1797 in France
• The turning point was in 1848 when Jews formed part of the revolutionary vanguard at Vienna and Berlin, the Frankfurt Assembly also endorsed full rights for German Jews
• In 1871 the constitution of the new German Empire abolished all restrictions on Jewish marriage, choice of occupation, place of residence, and property ownership however, exclusion from government employment and discrimination in social relations