Brain Response of Behavior
Note: Parts II and III follow below, complete all three.
Run Multimedias 2.3 and 2.4
Go to the Web site www.prenhall.com/morris.
Click text: Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.)
Click “2” on the select a chapter tool bar.
Click Live!Psych on the left hand menu.
Select 2.3 and 2.4.
Write a 350- to 700-word response to the following: Explain the communication process of neurons in the brain. List some common neurotransmitters and describe their effect on behavior.
The transmission of signals from one neuron the next across the synapses is a chemical called neurotransmitters. These chemicals are found at the end of the axon motor neurons and are meant to stimulate the muscle fibers and cause them to contract. Such glands as the pituitary and adrenal glands produce these chemicals. The first neurotransmitter to be discovered is the acetylcholine. While this neurotransmitter has numerous functions it is responsible for the stimulations of muscles, the intestinal system and has a part in the REM sleep. The neurotransmitter that is responsible for putting a person on high alert in a stressful situation is nor epinephrine. The adrenal gland releases this neurotransmitter into the blood stream along with epinephrine (aka adrenalin) and the blood pressure and heart rate increase. Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. This chemical finds its way to receptor sites and blocks the neurons from firing. Schizophrenia and social anxiety is known to be caused because of an abundance of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Nicotine can increase the levels of dopamine. Another inhibitory neurotransmitter is gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter leads to anxiety if there is to little of this in the chemical system. The most common neurotransmitter is glutamate. This is a relative of GABA. In the central nervous system this neurotransmitter makes up half of all the neurotransmitters in the brain. Glutamate is very important to the memory, and is toxic to neurons and to much will kill the neurons. Excessive glutamate production is known to be connected to Lou Gehrig’s disease. If GABA is lacking in some parts of the brain epilepsy can occur. Glutamate is thought to be responsible for a number of nervous system diseases. Some glutamate receptors can be alcohol and barbiturates. The neurotransmitter that is connected with emotions and moods is serotonin. If there is to little serotonin it could lead to depression, anger, obsessive-compulsive disorder and even suicide. Serotonin is also connected to migraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Endogenous morphine (endorphin) is considered to be built in heroin and has similar functions as heroin. Endogenous morphine neurotransmitters are inhibitors as well. This neurotransmitter is involved in pain reduction and pleasure.
Refer to Ch. 2 (pp. 58-78) In Psychology: An Introduction.
Write a 350- to 700-word response identifying the major regions of the brain and what functions of behavior the systems of each region control.
The cerebellum is the main structure in the hindbrain. The cerebellum is at the base of the brain, at the top of the spinal cord. The cerebellum controls balance, postural stability and is involved in motor coordination’s. Some regions of the cerebellum can be vulnerable to the effects of chronic alcoholism. Some think that because it is set so far back from the front of the brain that it will not be as susceptible to alcohol, but the hindbrain is connected to those regions that are most effective. The cerebellum is not a part of the initial motor skills learning. In the performance and improvement of learned motor skills the cerebellum does take a part in. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The cerebral cortex is a part of this section of