The term ‘Celt’ can be applied to those indo European tribes that migrated into Europe by around 3000 bc. We can for better reasons name them as tribal societies that were connected with a common language. Their art/warfare was similar with each other. A sophisticated civilization that was misunderstood by their Roman/Greek counterparts and much of this comes from the La Tene Culture. They were wealthy people and that commonly used to attract raids from the Germanic tribes. Defining them as Celts would be an understatement as each tribal society would have had their own set of customs/warfare tactics. Apart from the Roman and Greek writers that aimed to portray them as barbaric, one of the things that can be said was they had a pre feudal hierarchal system, a religious system, and an militaristic outlook. Indeed, this research will use Gauls and Britons or other historical names rather than ‘Celt’ but at times however, when discussing the overhaul history/group it will be needed.
The conflict between the Romans and the Celts had gone way overboard, over 3 and a half centuries. Starting from the victorious General Benarus sacking Rome in 390bc, despite having no long term effect in the future, it had an long term effect on the Romans which Polybius states ‘humiliation the Romans developed a fear and loathing of the Celts ‘ which would lead a long term loathing for the Celts. This would then not only lead to widespread genocides of entire Gaulic tribes by the Romans, it would indeed create impeccable hosility from the Britons/Gauls. Then from Caesar’s expansion into Gaul/Germania and, till the last expansion into Britain, it endured a lot of conflict/diplomacy/deaths/war/battles and victories/defeat. These were brutal times between these two civilizations. One thing that the Roman authors like Polybius tend to ignore is that the Gauls were once a capable threat to the Romans and were they oldest adversaries. The idea that ‘frontiers suggest cultural backwardness’ is necessarily the idea of the Roman point of view.
As an people:
In the 4th Century BC, the writer Ephorus named the Gauls, Persians, Sycthians, and liybans as the four greatest of race of ‘barbarians’. The Gauls as a whole of the Celtic race possessed many qualities, their technical skills were something to be admired, indeed, their wealth attracted many enemies such as the Romans and the Germans. Their artistry in metalwork were some of the finest ever seen. They invented the mail coat which would soon be adopted by their enemies and created the plow. They were more like an building people which involved smithing/or building objects, using materials such as wood/stone/other materials.
However, they were also capable of doing fine metal/artwork, fine gold work with finesse subletley. Examples include enammlled brooches, utensils and weapons that were surpassed in quality, indeed the Roman helmet itself developed from the Gaulic La Tene helmet. The Romans adapted many formations from these people.
Displaying was an natural love feature for the Gauls. Displaying was to them to be showing of their wealth and beauty into scoeity, very much like the feudal society of Europe as of this time. They ha d colourful clothing, collars and armlets of gold/silver which celebrated their tribes/or had family rites/or maybe bedecking their chiefs. Gaulish Sheild design would have had some of the finest shield designs ever seen for an civilization normally seen as Barbarians. One of the things that the Gauls inherited was the displaying of boasting, strength and prowess, and bragging. Bellowing war cries and insults to their enemies was particularly common. Quicker to laugh, and ferocious in combat.
As conforming to their combat, Livy emphasises the difference between Gaul and Roman thus; ‘one was remarkable for his stature, resplendent in multi‐coloured clothing and painted armour inlaid with gold; the other had a…