Chapter 9 Notes
1. Define group and distinguish the different types of groups
A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. They can be formal or informal.
Formal groups - are defined by the organization’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks,
-The behaviors that team members should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals ex. Airline flight crew
Informal groups - are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined.
-Are natural formations in the work environment in response to the need for social contact.
Three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together is an informal group
2. Identify the five stages of group development
The five-stage group-development model suggests that groups form through the process of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
1st stage forming - there is uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.
-Members are trying to determine what types of behavior are acceptable.
-Stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group.
2nd stage storming - there is considerable intragroup conflict. Members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to constraints on individuality.
-Conflict over who will control the group.
-Complete when there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group
3rd stage norming - close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness.
-There is now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie.
-complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior
The model assumes that groups become more effective as they progress through the first four stages.
4th stage performing - is where group performance is the highest
-The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted.
-Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing.
-For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in their development
5th stage adjourning - for temporary committees, teams, and task forces, there is an adjourning stage.
-the group prepares for its disbandment. Attention is directed toward wrapping up activities
-a group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages. While generally true, what makes a group effective is more complex. Under some conditions, high levels of conflict are conducive to high group performance. They don’t always precede from one stage to the next. Sometimes several stages go on simultaneously, as when groups are storming and performing. Groups even occasionally regress to previous stages
The punctuated-equilibrium model suggests that group progression is somewhat more erratic, in that activity interspersed with periods of inertia and acceleration as the deadline looms closer. This model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members’ awareness of time and deadlines. This model is limited to temporary task groups who are working under a time-constrained completion deadline
3. Show how role requirements change in different situation
Roles -All group members are actors, each playing a role.
-“A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.”
-We are required to play a number of diverse roles, both on and off our jobs. Many of these roles are compatible; some create conflicts.
-Different groups impose different role requirements on individuals.
Role identity -There are certain attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role, and they create the role identity.
-People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they