Chapter 11 Questions Essay

Submitted By xhamuel
Words: 1445
Pages: 6

Chapter 11 Questions

Chapter 11 Question 1

• Describe the collapse of the cod fishery in the northwest Atlantic and some of its side effects
• Collapse: The overfishing through Industrial fish harvesting methods caused the collapse of Cod in the Northwest Atlantic in 1992.
• Side effects: Severely damaged New Finland’s economy, 20,000 fishermen out of work, Cod population still has not recovered, lead to collapse of other species such as sharks.

• Describe the effects of trawler fishing, purse-seine fishing, longlining, and drift-net fishing.
• Trawler fishing: Used to catch fish and shellfish that live on or near the ocean floor. Involves a funnel-shaped net along the ocean floor. Destroys ocean floor habitats.
• Purse-seine fishing: A spotter plane locates a school of fish and a fishing vessel encloses the fish with a large net. Large numbers of dolphins have been killed due to getting stuck in the nets.
• Longlining fishing: Putting out line hung with thousands of baited hooks.
Hook large numbers of endangered sea turtles, dolphins, and sea birds.
• Drift-net fishing: Fish are caught by huge drifting nets. Leads to overfishing of the desired species and kills large quantity of unwanted fish

• How have laws and treaties been used to sustain aquatic species? Describe international efforts to protect whales and sea turtles.
• Laws and treaties have been used to sustain aquatic species by putting restrictions on the killing of marine wildlife. Some restrictions include banning the use of drift nets. People have worked to restore habitats such as mangrove forests, coastal wetlands and coral reefs. International efforts include the International Whale Commission, Turtle Excluder
Devices, and the banning of long-line swordfish fishing to help save dwindling sea turtles.

Chapter 11 Question 2

By Zach, John, and Meghan

Chapter 11 Question - 2
• Describe the use of marine protected areas and marine reserves to help sustain aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services.

–Animals do not get killed which preserves biodiversity and ecosystem services.
–Preserves habitat and allows it to develop on its own.

Chapter 11 Questions - 2
• What percentage of the world’s oceans is fully protected from harmful human activities in marine reserves?

0.1%

Chapter 11 Questions - 2
• Describe the roles of the fishing communities and individual consumers in regulating fishing and coastal development.
– Communities work with local government to develop better ways to preserve fish populations and habitats.
– Consumers prevent overfishing by buying sustainably harvested fish.
– Communities focus more on in-shore fisheries.
– Government focus on off-shore fisheries.

Chapter 11 Questions - 2
• What is integrated coastal management?

–Community based effort to develop and use coastal resources more sustainably.
–Great Barrier Reef is managed by integrated coastal management.

Chapter 11 Question 3
By: Megan Nodolf, Kayla Sampson,
Patrick Barney

• Describe and discuss the limitations of three

ways to

estimate the sizes of fish populations.

• Maximum Sustained yield: Traditional approach that is used to project the maximum number of fish that can be harvested annually from a fish stock without causing a population drop. Yet it has difficulty estimating the populations and growth rates of fish stocks.
• Optimum Sustained Yield: Attempts to take in account interactions among species and to provide more room for error.
• Multispecies Management: Takes into account species competitive and predator prey interactions.
The limitation for these two is that there is much to learn about the biology of fishes and changing ocean conditions.

• How can the precautionary principle help in managing fisheries and large marine systems?

• The precautionary principle helps to sharply reduce fish harvests, and can close some overfished areas until they recover and until we have more information about what levels of fishing can be sustained.

•…