Chapter 23 Essay

Submitted By csank
Words: 535
Pages: 3

Chapter 23
The Great
War

“impartial in thought as well as deed” Why neutral?
1.Use position as moral, neutral country to bring a peace agreement
2.$ as neutral you can trade with everybody Why does Wilson ignore
British violation of neutral rights? *pro British
*Small trade with Germany
*Growing trade with GB &
France

United States Trade with Nations at War
(millions of dollars)
Nation
1914
1915
1916
Great Britain 594
912
1,527
France
160
369
629
Italy
74
185
269
Germany
345
29
less than 1

Lusitania

May 7, 1915
1198 killed
128
Americans

Sank in 18 minutes National Defense Act 1916
*raise army 90,000 to 223,000
*National guard to 440,000
Naval Defense Act 1916
$500 million

Election of 1916

Charles Evans
Hughes

Woodrow
Wilson

Wilson:
“He kept us out of war”

January 1917
Wilson to Congress
“Peace without victory”

January 31,1917 – Germany unrestricted submarine warfare February 25,1917 –
Zimmerman Telegram
March – Czar overthrown

April 2,1917 Wilson asks for War declaration

373 to 50 House
82 to 6 Senate

Cost of War: $32 billion
How to pay:
“Liberty Bonds” $23 billion
New Taxes

$10 billion

Council of National
Defense
Sets up boards to organize different areas of war effort
War Industry BoardBernard Baruch

Selective Service Act
May 1917
2.8 million men drafted General
John J.
Pershing

A.E.F. leaves for
France

Lafayette we are here

Alvin
York

Meuse-Argonne

November 1918
*German Army at state of collapse
*German Navy mutinies
*Kaiser abdicates
*Socialist revolts in German cities
*November 11, 1918 war ends

Peace Movement & Government
*Espionage Act
*Sabotage Act
*Sedition Act
1500 arrested
Targets: Socialist, German-Amer.

Schenck v. United States
*Schenck sent circulars to draftees *Oliver Wendell Holmes:
“the most stringent protection of free speech would not a man in falsely shouting fire in theater. . .”

14 POINTS
* 8 border adjustments
*5 general principles free seas no secret treaties reduce arms free trade impartial mediator

League of
Nations

Problems:
*England/France must have compensation *Wilson makes 1918 elections a vote on his leadership
*Wilson won’t take any
Republicans with him

Peace Conference at Versailles

Big Four

Treaty of Versailles
*no…