Child Development Essay

Submitted By tammylynette
Words: 1915
Pages: 8

Physical development

Birth to 3 years

Birth - Lies on back with head to one side
Head lags when pulled up to sit
Primitive reflexes, i.e. rooting, sucking, stepping, grasping

1 month - Head control still unsteady, head and eyes move together
Hands in tight fists, grasps objects when they touch the palm of the hand

3 months - Kicks legs and waves arms
Can lift head and turn when on front
Watches movements of own hands, plays with own hands
Holds rattle for a few seconds if placed in hand

4 months - Uses arms for support when lying on stomach, turns from back to side
Holds on to and shakes small items

6 months - Sits with support, Rolls over
Pushes head, neck and chest off floor with arms when on front
Uses whole hand in palmar grasp, passes toy from one hand to another

9 months - Sits alone without support, may crawl or shuffle
Reaches out for toys when sitting
Pokes at small item with index finger
Uses index and middle fingers with thumb in pincer grip to pick up small items
Will take and hold a small brick in each hand, lifts block but can only release by dropping

1 year - Stands alone and starts to walk holding on (‘cruising’)
Mobile through crawling or shuffling
Enjoys self-feeding and holds cup with help
Picks up anything tiny from the floor using neat pincer grip
Starting to show hand preference
Clicks two cubes together
Puts cubes in box when shown

18 months - Can walk alone
Pushes and pulls toys when walking
Can walk downstairs with hand held
Tries to kick a ball, rolls and throws ball
Squats to pick up objects from the floor
Assists with dressing and undressing
Can use a spoon
Uses a delicate pincer grasp for tiny objects
Holds a crayon in primitive tripod grasp and scribbles
Turns handles, Pulls off shoes.

2 years - Walks up and down stairs with both feet on one step, climbs on furniture
Builds a tower of six bricks
Uses a spoon for self-feeding
Puts shoes on
Draws circles and dots
Starts to use preferred hand

3 – 10 years

3 years - Stands and walks on tiptoe, jumps from low steps
Can kick a ball confidently
Pedals a tricycle
Turns single pages in a book
Can draw a face
Builds bridges with blocks when shown
Undoes buttons
Threads large beads

4 years - Can aim and throw and catch a large ball
Walks backwards and on a line, runs and hops
Builds a large tower
Can brush own teeth
Cuts round an object with scissors and copies a square
Buttons and unbuttons clothes
Can do a 12-piece jigsaw

5 years – Skips, runs quickly
Easily dresses and undresses
Hits a ball with a bat
Draws a person with a head, body and legs, and a house
Can do a 20-piece jigsaw
Forms letters and writes own name
Accurately uses scissors

6 – 7 years - Enjoys hopping, bike riding, roller blading and skating
Balances on a wall or beam
Has finer manipulation of building bricks, jigsaws, etc
Can sew simple stitches
Ties and unties laces
Builds intricate models
Controls pencil in a small area and does detailed drawing

8 – 10 years - Improves physical skills that have already developed
Puberty starts around 10 for girls with a growth spurt and increase in body strength

11–16 years

Brains developing with increase in reaction times and co-ordination. For girls puberty is complete at about 14 and periods start
For boys puberty is 13–16 and they will be stronger than girls

Social, emotional, behavioural and moral

Birth to 3 years Birth - Responds positively to main carer
Imitates facial expressions
Stares at bright shiny objects

1 month - Gazes intently at carers
Social smile at carers (by 6 weeks)

4 months - Smiles, engages and vocalises with carers

6 months - Starts to show interest in other babies, smiles
Becomes more interested in social interaction, depending on amount of time spent with other children and his or her personality
Shows fear of strangers and distress at separation from carer