Study Guide Essay example

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Study Guide
Chapter 2
1. Development: the pattern of change that occur throughout the life span
A. Biological
B. Cognitive
C. Sociemotional

2. Prenatal: conception to birth
Infancy to toddler: birth to age 2
Early childhood: age 2 to 6
Late/middle childhood: age 6 to 11
Adolescent: age 11 to 18

3. Theory: an organized system of assumptions and principles that claims to explain certain phenomena
Theory example: providing isolated divorced mothers with social support will lead them to be more patient with their children

Hypothesis: a prediction drawn from a theory
Hypothesis example: an infant cry will stimulate strong physiological arousal in adults who hear it, motivating them to soothe and protect a suffering baby.

4. Observation:
Naturalistic
Advantages: reflects participants everyday behaviors
Disadvantage: can’t control, and prone to observer influence

Laboratory:
Advantages: setting up situations that evokes behaviors to be observed
Disadvantage: children may behave differently.

Interview/Survey
Advantages: can be conducted in person, over the phone and on the internet
Disadvantages: prone to wording effects and mood congruent.

Standardize Testing
Advantages: A person’s performance may be compared to other people performances
Disadvantages: person behavior and performance may vary with the situation

Physiological Measures
Advantages: used to study children development
Disadvantage: can’t reveal with certainty the meaning of autonomic or brain activity.

Case Study
Advantages: produced detailed descriptions, show what can happen, give directions for farther research
Disadvantage: this information often cannot be generalized to other individuals

5. Descriptive: observing and recording behavior and characteristics
Correlation: describes the strength of the relationship between two events or characteristics
Experimental: establishing cause and effect

6. The strength of the relationship is determined by the correlation coefficient
Correlation coefficient can range in value from +1.00 to -1.00, the magnitude or size of the number shows the strength of the relationship. A zero correlation indicates no relationship, the closer the value is to positive or negative one the stronger the relationship.

7. Independent variable: thought to influence, determine, or cause changes in other variables; these variables we manipulate. Dependent Variable: believed to be influenced by the independent variable; these variables we Measure. Control Group: A control group or comparison in a scientific experiment is a group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. Experimental Group: The group whose experience is manipulated. An operational definition: is a very specific definition used in an experiment, to ensure that all of the researchers collecting data are watching for the same thing. 8. People are randomly assigned to reduced the likelihood that results are due to pre-existing differences between the groups and confounding variables. 9. Longitudinal: The same individuals are studies over a period of time.
Advantages:
Allow to study stability and change, and influence of earlier experiences on later development
Permits study of common patterns and individual differences in development
Disadvantages:
Expensive and time-consuming
Selective attrition
Practice effects
Cohort effects (i.e., generational differences)
May become outdated due to changes in theories and methods

Cross Sectional: Individuals of different ages are compared at the…