Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years.
| Physical development | Intellectual development | Language development | Social + Emotional development | 0-12 | Head control, sits unsupported, crawls, pulls to stand, walks, climbs on to furniture, reaches for object, build 4-6 block tower, holds and lifts cup, turns book pages | Drops toys deliberately and watches them fall – this is called ‘casting’Looks in correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight | Knows own nameJargons loudly in ‘conversations’, includes most vowels soundsUnderstands about 20 words in context, for example cup, dog, dinner, andUnderstands simple messages, for example ‘clap hands’, ‘where are your shoes? | Have many different emotions. Uses crying, sounds, actions and facial expressions to show emotions. Recognizes familiar people. Is able to express his/her own needs more clearly. | 1-3 | Walks, runs, climbs, may be ready for toilet training, pours form pitcher, puts on socks and shoes, buttons and unbuttons, rides a tricycle, can build tall towers | Copies circle and cross, draws man with headMatches two or three primary coloursPaints with large brush, cuts with scissors, understands cause and effects | Rapidly expanding vocabulary, including plurals, tenses and sentencesHolds simple conversationsEnjoys repetition of favorite storiesCounts to ten | Greater social awarenessWill play in twos or threes, sharing ideasMay have close friendsA lot of mixed play of the sexesStable and emotionally secureFriendly to other childrenIncreasing in independence, but still needs support from adultsFears loss of careersStrong sense of gender identityLess anxious about separationPlays alongside others | 3-5 | SkipsRuns quicklyEasily dresses and undressesHits a ball with a batDraws a person with a head, body and legs, and a houseCan do a 20-piece jigsawForms letters and writes own nameAccurately uses scissors | Copies square, and range of letters – some spontaneouslyDraws man with head, body, arms, legs and features, and will draw houseColours pictures neatlyNames primary colours and matches ten or more coloursKnows time of day for basic activities, for example breakfast, bedtimeMatches symbols, letters and numbersCan decide on lighter and heavier objectsUnderstands, in front of, behind, next toCounts to 20 by rote | Imitates adult speechCan be understood by strangersForms short, grammatically correct sentencesAsks many questions of the type: what? Why? And how?Knows parts of body, animalsStill makes errors of tenses | Self-assured, stable &well-adjusted. Likes to be around mother. Likes to follow rules. Prefers to play with others. Proud of good grades. Has best friends, shows sense of humor, wash and dry his or her hands and brush her teeth . | 5-11 | Enjoys hopping, bike riding, roller blaring and skatingBalances on a wall or beamHas finer manipulation of building bricks, jigsaws, etcCan sew simple stitchesTies and unties lacesBuilds intricate modelsControls pencil in a small area and does detailed drawing, body proportions are becoming more similar to an adult | Able to understand concept of conservation , for example the amount of play doughremains the same if you make a ball of dough into a long, thin snakeDeveloping the ability to think about several things at onceEnjoys games and rulesUnderstands the use of symbols in math’s, writing, etc.Great curiosity in relation to workings of his or her environment | Speech is fluent and correct, using descriptive languageGives full name, age, birthday and addressEnjoys jokes, singing, rhymes, etc.Rapidly expanding vocabulary – 5,000 words by five yearsRecognizes new words and asks the meaning of themWill accurately copy accents heardProduces most sounds, with some residual difficulty with some letter groups | Very concerned about right and wrong. Develops strong likes and dislikes. Points out when parents are wrong or do things they tell