The most widely supported theory of how dyslexia affects reading and writing is known as the phonological processing impairment theory. It is thought that people with dyslexia find phonological processing much more difficult than other people. It is thought that the reason people with dyslexia have problems with phonological processing is that some areas of their brain function in a different way than in people without the condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown that activity levels in all three regions of the brain are much lower in people with dyslexia when they are trying to read. These low brain activity levels may contribute to their problems with phonological processing. The cerebellum is also responsible for coordination, and your ability to estimate how much time has passed. This may explain why many people with dyslexia have problems with coordination and time management. Dyslexia is also thought to possibly be a genetic condition which means it runs in families. It is estimated that if you have dyslexia, there is 40-60% likelihood that your child will also develop the condition.
A symptom is something the patient senses and describes, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor notice. For example, drowsiness may be a symptom while dilated pupils may be a sign. Symptoms of dyslexia may include expressive language problems or disabilities. When reading aloud, for example, people with dyslexia may reverse words or parts of words. A dyslexic child may read the word "bad" as if it were "dab." Word order and sounds may also be confused, by dyslexics, and words are often omitted or slurred over. "The dog chased the cat down the street" could become "the gob chaled on the treats." Dyslexics may also reverse letters and words in written language. Mirror writing, a complete reversal of words, is sometimes present.
When is it detected?
Gabrieli is intrigued by studies that employ an electroencephalogram, or EEG, to record changes in brain activity (called event-related potentials) in response to language. Using this approach, several groups have found that newborns from families with dyslexia show differences in response to language sounds within hours or days of birth. A recent study of kindergarten-age children suggests that measuring this type of electrical activity may predict reading difficulty more accurately than behavioral measures alone.
The treatment of dyslexia should be directed to the specific learning problems the person has. The usual course is to…